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14-15 study guide
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Ch 14

Annul- to cancel or invalidate.

 

Gravity-The force that tends to pull one mass or object to another.

 

Patron-person who provides financial support for the arts

 

Perspective-artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three dimensional effect.

 

Theocracy-government run by the church leaders.

 

John Calvin was a priest and a lawyer who helped lead the protesant to a reformation of the catholic church. Calvinists were the followers of calvin, they helped spread calvins ideas all over Europe.

 

Henry VIII-

Fought with the pop at the time for an divorce of his marriage. Henery then changed the laws through the parliament and appointed Thomas crammer as archbishop so he could have an divorce.

 

Leonardo de Vinci-

Was a artist inventer and an anatomist. He created many drawings of the human body in fin detail. He painted the mona lisa.

 

Lorenzo de' Medici

       Came from a wealthy banking family. He was able to aid the artists during this time.

 

Niccolo Machiavelli

Had served florance as a diplomat. He studied ancient roman history. He saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption. 

 

Heliocentric-based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe.

 

 

Humanism-intellectual movement at the heart of intalian renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather the on religious issues.

 

Indulgence-in the roman catholic church pardon fro sins committed during a persons life time.

 

Predestination- idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation.

 

Recant-to give up ones views or beliefs.

 

Copenicus- he was a scientist

 

Durer-  Emploid methods in painting engraving and prints that portray religious upheaval of his age. He also helped spread Italian renissance ideas in his homeland.

 

Luther-he was a protestant of the church in 1517 he started a revolt against the church he had 95 reforms and posted them on the church door

 

Newton- discovered  the theory of gravity.

 

Petrarch-in the Byzantine empire it was the highest church official in the major city. During this time patriarch made many of the rulers.

 

Renaissance focus

 

printing of reformation- once the printing press was discovered people worked hard to print the books that had been previously hand written.

 

results of Reformation-Europe was becoming corrupt.

 

causes of Renaissance-The philosophers decided to consentrate more on the arts and music then the spiritual world.

 

 

Ch18

 

Hobbes-a European thinker that thought that peole are driven by selfishness and greed. To avoid chaos, they give up their freedom to a government that will ensure order. Such a government must be strong ans able to suppress rebellion.

 

Locke- a European political thinker that thought people have a natural right to life, liberty and property. Tulers have a responsibility to protect those rights. People have the right to change a government that fails to do so.

 

Joseph II-changed the way of government by taking up enlightened ideas

 

constitional govt.-a government whose power is defined and limited by law.

 

enlightened despot- an apsolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social change.

 

natural laws-rules that govern human nature.

 

natural rights-rights that belong to all humans from birth.

 

Physiocrat-an enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics.

 

Bach- a famous pianist.

 

Diderot-he changed changed the general way of thinking by explaining on government philosophy and religion.

 

Tom Paine-echoed the themes of the enlightenment. He rejected ancient prejudice and tyranny while appealing to reason.

 

Rousseau-european political thinker that thought the people are basically good but become corrupted by society. In an ideal society, people would make the laws and would obey them willingly.

 

Robert Walpole-  molded then continent landowning aristocrats were seen as the “natural” ruling class.

 

Baroque-ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600’s and 1700s.

 

free market- market in which goods are bought and sold without restrictions.

 

laissez faire-policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

 

Salon-infermation social gathering at which writers, artists and philosophers exchanged ideas.  Originated in france in the 1600s

 

social contract- agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos.  

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