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Timeline

Taishi Kato

Danny Kelchner

 

French Revolution

Time Line

 

The Old Regime: Reign of King Louis XVI (1774-1792)

Marie Antoinette- She was part of the mod and was killed even though there was no proof that she committed a crime.  She was also the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa. She married in 1770 to the French dauphin. Her unpopularity helped question the monarchy in the period before the French Revolution.

Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743) - French cardinal and chief minister during the reign of King

Financial and administrative problems- Government spending more money than it takes in Deficit Spending

Demands of the Nobility- The people that owned the land wanted protection from the French army.

Identify "Jacques Turgot" (1727-1781) - a French economist and statesmen, he was appointed the chief executive officer of the district of Limoges, he instituted a number of financial reforms

Identify "Jacques Necker" (1732-1804)- he was a financial wizard, as an adviser, he urged the king to reduce court spending, reform government, and improve internal trade by abolishing tariffs that made trade costly, but when he suggested they tax the 1st and 2nd estates the nobles and high clergymen forced the king to dismiss the would-be reformer

Explain Louis Reign- Louis XVI was a terrible ruler.  He would make executive decisions without even running them through his mind, which led to France going into bad debt.  Because of Louis arrogance, the taxes skyrocketed.

The Estates General (1788)

First Estate- The first estate consisted mainly of priests and other members of the church. They basically live a simple, hardworking life in comfort and good health.  There were also schools, hospitals and other thing run by the church people

Second Estate- the nobility of the French Society had the highest paying job and had to pay little or no tax. Some nobles resented the royal government and hated absolutism.

Bourgeoisie- This was another name for the middle class people in France. They wanted fair taxes and political power.

Proletariat- They depend on the sale of their own labor. They are the class of exploited workers and wage earners.

Third Estate- This was made up of the peasants, middle class and the urban workers.

Peasant life in France- The peasants in France always kept getting their rights token away by King Louis for the better of the rich folk.  They were required to pay very heavy taxes in which they cannot afford because they do not have much money. They usually had to steal food from others to help feed their family.  So they lived a very poor life.

Gabelle- a tax imposed on the working class for salted products.

Corv’ee- unpaid labor to repair roads and bridges.   Peasants were also irritated when the nobles tried to reinforce old manor dues.

The Middle Class- This class was also called the third estate and have the highest population and owned the most land by estate. They were bitter of there constitutional rights.

Urban workers- they were all kinds’ workers from all classes, like lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors

King Louis XVI summons the Estates General (1788)

Identify "Elections for the Estates General"- In 1788 the Assembly of Notables was unsuccessful to work out the financial crisis of the French government. Then, as his last resort, King Louis XVI ordered elections for the States-General.

Identify "Demands on the Monarchy"- they had to keep all the financial records and keep the king on track. They also had to make remarks regarding other group’s decisions.

Voting by Order- Before thus was put into action; each estate would meet separately and would cast one vote so the first two estates would win 2 to 1. They came up with a new system where they all met together and then the third estate would win by sheer number.

The Third Estate proclaims itself to be the National Assembly (1789)

Identify "The Tennis Court Oath"- one day the national assembly found themselves locked out of their meeting place, so they went to a near by tennis court.   Here they vowed how they would not disband until after they had written a constitution.

Identify "Louis XVI Versus the National Assembly"- the Third Estate proclaims itself The National Assembly. A few liberal nobles and many clergy men joined the movement of the Third Estate. The National Assembly proclaims itself the Constituent National Assembly, with full authority and power to decree law; their primary task is to draw up and adopt a constitution.

A Paris Mob storms the Bastille (1789)

Describe what happened- The people of the country were very angry with the monarchy because they felt that the taxation was unfair and harsh. They also wanted to defend Paris and the National Assembly from the king's foreign troops.

Jacques Necker's restoration- The idea of Necker as a financial wizard, held by both people and philosophers, did not suffer when he left office in 1781.  He was therefore recalled in desperation when Brienne was dismissed in September 1788.

Jean Bailly's promotion (1736-1793) - He was elected in 1789 from Paris to the States-General and was chosen president of the National Assembly. He was the Mayor of Paris from 1789 to 1791, but he lost favor with the popular elements that pushed the French Revolution onward. He was executed on the 12 of November 1793.

Marquis de Lafayette's promotion (1757-1834) - He was a French solider and later a General in the America Revolution.

How did the revolt affect most aristocrats? - Bringing the war with the Habsburgs to a victorious conclusion and at home defeating the first concerted effort by disgruntled aristocrats

The Great Fear Sweeps the French countryside (1789)

Describe- In the year leading up to the storming of the Bastille, the economic problems of many common people had become steadily worse, largely because poor weather conditions had ruined the harvest

Effects- they attacked the residences of their landlords in hopes of protecting local grain supplies and reducing rents on their land.

The National Assembly approves the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen (1789)

Describe the Declaration of the Rights of Man- the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizens was approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789. This declaration allowed and gained the people of the city more legal rights

Declaration of the Rights of Women- This declaration states that man and women are created equal and cannot be treated differently

Mob Action (1789) - Later people wanted to make sure they got their rights. So people formed mobs and stormed lords' castles and caused destruction.

Political Clubs- There was several political clubs that were created in France. Some of these groups included the Jacobins, Cordeliers, and the Feuillants.

The Jacobins- This club was known to be the most radical. It was formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General. It was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.

The Cordeliers- This club was founded in 1790 as the Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. It provided a political base for Georges Danton and Jean Paul Marat.  After Marat's assassination the club was led by Jacques René Hébert and it drifted to the extreme left.

The Feuillants- This club was founded in July, 1791, when the Jacobins that opposed the petition for the dethronement of the king, split off and began to meet at the former Feuillant convent. The Feuillants advocated a constitutional monarchy.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1789)- This constitution put the French Catholic Church under state control. The bishops and priests became elected as paid officials.

The National Assembly enacts the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)

The Constitution of 1791 establishes a constitutional monarchy (1791)

Necker's resignation- After his long years, his final resignation came in 1790. His last years were spent at "Coppet”, his Swiss estate.

Mirabeau- he was elected in 1789 as a delegate of the third estate for Aix-en-Provence in the States-General. His clear and practical ideas, his expressiveness, and his terrifying yet magnificent appearance exerted a fascination over the delegates and the population.

Mirabeau's death (1791) - He died in Apr., 1791, amid impressive manifestations of public sorrow and respect, for he had never lost his popularity with the masses. He was buried in the Panthéon, but his body was later removed when his dealings with the court were discovered.

Louis XVI and family flee but captured- One night, June 20, 1791, Alex von Fersen, drove by to pick up the royal family. When they felt as if it was going very well Louis XVI started to grow careless. Louis XVI's troops were growing increasingly aware that they were being noticed by the towns people and lost the location of the King's carriage in the process. At a town called Sainte-Menehould, Louis was recognized by Jean-Babtiste Drouet, the town postmaster. When they arrived, they took the King and his family back to Paris with them (almost as if they were prisoners).

Louis accepts New Constitution (Sept. 14, 1791)- Because Louis was trying to escape but got caught, his family was brought back to France, where he was forced to sign a new constitution, which limited the power of the monarchy.

Other reforms of the National Assembly (1791)

Abolished titles of nobility- On August 4, 1789 the nobles of the National Assembly voted to end their privileges. These titles of nobility contained great privileges of wealth and power. They were often known for taxing the peasantry.

Reorganized local government- One reform made by the National Assembly was the reorganization of local government. The constitution replaced old provinces with 83 departments, abolished old provincial courts and reformed laws. It also protected private property, and supported free trade, compensated nobles for land seized, abolished guilds, and forbade city workers to organize labor unions.

Laissez faire principals- The government was organized in a laissez faire way which meant that they cannot interfere with the work of the other people’s businesses.

Legislative Assembly convenes (1791-92)

Conservatives- Over half of the National Assembly were conservatives. There were horrible fights in Paris because of the April 1791election.

Moderates (centrists)- The moderates ruled, but their heir to the throne was assassinated in 1820. Untra-Royalists were brought to the throne

Girondists- They were an arrival with Jacobins. Both were apart of a convention of rising prices and food shortages, but was bitterly divided.        

Mountain- They was a group of people that consisted of the Jacobins and the Cordeliers the ruled France during the Reign of Terror.  A mass of land rising abruptly and to a large height from the surrounding level

Intervention of Foreign Powers (1791-92)- Louis XVI's attempted escape from France caused further violence in the countryside, and in August of 1791 the King of Prussia and the Emperor of Austria issued the Declaration of Pilnitz; in which they threatened to intervene if necessary to protect the French monarchy.

Austria-Prussia Alliance- Frederick William greatly increased the size of the Prussian army and rebuilt the organization of the state around the military establishment.  On April 20, 1792, Prussia decided to take back Austria so the two countries invaded France. A new government called the commune put the king in prison and took the power.

France's Legislative Assembly declares war (April 20, 1792)- On April 20, 1792, Prussia decided to take back Austria so the two countries invaded France. A new government called the commune put the king in prison and took the power.

The Legislative Assembly deposes King Louis XVI and calls for the election of the National Convention (1792)

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity- A legacy of the Age of Enlightenment, the motto "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité" first appeared during the French Revolution. Although it was often called into question, it finally established itself under the Third Republic. It was written into the 1958 Constitution and is part nowadays of the French national heritage

Radical Takeover- When the execution of King Louis XVI was over, the cities became a little chaotic; therefore, to solve these hectic problems, the National Convention decided that the Jacobins and the Cordeliers should take over.

Robespierre- He was a shrewd lawyer and politician, who quickly rose to the leadership of the committee of Public Safety.  Among the Jacobins, his selfless dedication to the revolution earned him the nickname, “the incorruptible”.  Enemies called him a tyrant

Danton- In the new republic, he became minister of justice and virtual head of the Provisional Executive Council. When France suffered military reverses, Danton began to support a peace-making foreign On Mar. 30, 1794, Danton and his followers were charged with conspiracy to overthrow the government. The trial was a mockery, and Danton was guillotined.

Marat- He studied medicine in England, got some repute as a doctor in London and Paris, and wrote scientific and medical works (some in English), but was frustrated in his attempts to win official recognition for his work.

Sans-culottes- This was a working-class of men and women in Paris, who pushed the revolution into more radical action.  By 1791, many sans-culottes demanded a republic.  They also wanted the government to guarantee them a living wage.

King Louis XVI is executed (1793)- France was declared by the National Assembly to be a Republic. Louis XVI was on trial and also sentenced to be put to death in 1793.

The Reign of Terror begins (1793)

Committee of public safety- This committee was established to deal with the threats of France, this convention created the committee of public safety.  This 12 member committee had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution.

Jacobins- This group were a revolutionary political club which was mostly populated of the middle-class lawyers or intellectuals.

Republic of virtue- Robespierre, the strong leader, believed that France could only become a republic of virtue if all of the criminals lose their heads. That is when he came up with the idea of using the guillotine as a way to execute criminals.

Justification of extreme violence- Robespierre believed that every criminal should be executed, which pretty much changed the way of how people think because now they believed that bad people should just die so they kill anyone bad.

Revolutionary tribunal- This is a kings funeral.  The Revolutionary tribunal was when the new idea came up where they believed in quick court trials, in which they would quickly sentence the victim to death.

How many dead?- It is estimated that around 40,000 people were killed, included Marie Antoinette the queen. They were executed during the reign of terror. The Reign of Terror effectively ended when the National Assembly, whose members began to fear for there own lives, condemned its leader Maximilien.

The National Convention abolishes the monarchy (1792)

The War of the First Coalition is fought (1792-1797)- These wars were really bad and the first coalition fighters went to war.

Lev’ee en masse- The idea that no single power could come to dominate the continent until the French lev´ee en masse provided the manpower that could overrun any coalition

Coalition- Coalition is an alliance, especially a temporary one, of people, factions, parties, or nations. All of the countries in Europe except France were against France.

French military victories- the French military was very successful on their victories. They were strong and ready to attack so they became stronger and stronger so they won more of their battles.

Treaty of Basel- This treaty drove Prussia and Spain out of the Revolutionary wars

The Thermidorean Reaction ends the Reign of Terror (1794)

9 Thermidor- The conspirators of 9 Thermidor became known as Thermidorean. This is the Year II, in the revolutionary calendar.

Guillotine- This was a machine used to execute people or cut people's heads off... Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine invented it because he believed that "axes were unreliable."

The National Convention drafts the Constitution of 1795 (1795)

Who controlled it?- The people who controlled the National Convention constitution were a group of people that consisted of a directory, or executive of 5 directors, and a 2 house legislature.

How was it controlled?- The directors would rotate their power from one director to the next after a matter of time. It was pretty well balanced

Council of Elders- The Council of Elders consisted of older wiser people and their place in the government was below the 2 houses of legislature.

Dissolving of the National Convention- Like another group, the National Convention became weak, I think this is because they were coming up with more ideas like trying to de-Christianize France and believing that women are not as good as men.

The Directory begins to rule France(1795-1799)

Financial crisis- There was a big financial crisis during this time because the leaders were using the money that was suppose to be used toward the people and used it for themselves; therefore, causing a financial downfall because no one is aware of where the money is actually going.

Corruption- The Directory became corrupt and chose not help the citizens when they needed the help; therefore, the citizens chose Napoleon to fix the mess they were in.

Exhaustion- The Directory was gaining much power; however, it wasn’t really working out so the people were exhausted with how the directory was doing their job

Army- While Napoleon was in power, the strength of the Army was stronger than ever. They would be able to defeat many countries and expend the empire. Napoleon was a very strong leader and pushed the army to be stronger.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                            Napoleon Bonaparte

                                                                                                                                   Time Line

 

 

Napoleon Bonaparte is born in Corsica (1769-1821)

birth and childhood- Napoleon Bonaparte was born of lower noble status in Ajaccio, Corsica on August 15, 1769.  His parents were Carlo Bonaparte, and Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte.  He had seven brothers and sisters, and despised the French.

physical stature (Napoleonic complex)- He was called the "little Corsican" because of his height of 5' 2", and constantly teased; he started having dreams of personal glory and triumph.  He was skinny, with brown hair, and blue-gray eyes.  He developed a strong body, learned to swim, fight, and climb trees.

marriage and political significance- Napoleon regulated economy by controlling prices, encouraging new industries, and built roads and canals. Napoleon had wife part of the throne with other members of his family. He had divorced his wife Josephine to marry the niece of Marie Antoinette.

Early military successes (1796)-

Napoleon's army defeats the Austrians in Northern Italy (1797)- Napoleon's first big campaign was his attack on Austria.  During one attack he showed his bravery by forcing his way across a burning bridge.  With this he earned the name "Petit Caporal" or "Little Corporal" in English.  He then attacked the Austrians in Mantua, where troops were sent four different times, all crushed by Napoleon.  In 1797, he came within 80 miles of Vienna when Austria surrendered.  He had won 14 pitched battles and 70 combats.

Treaty of Campo Formio- After the surrender, Napoleon negotiated a treaty called Campo Formio with Austria. Austria gave up Netherlands and Lombardy to France. Austria also recognized the Rhine as the eastern boundary of France. In return, France gave Austria most of the old Venetian Republic.

1798-1799 French extend their control- the French had extended their control to Mantua. They had gained control of this after Austria had tried to get it.

Napoleon Fights his Egyptian campaign (1798-1799)

Napoleon's invasion of Egypt/ why?- When Napoleon wanted to take an army into Egypt, he came up with the idea that if he conquered Egypt he could attack the English's route to India.  He won the battle of the Pyramids, but his fleet was destroyed at the Battle of the Nile.  So, Napoleon decided to invade Syria. When the English and Turkish troops in Syria had held up against Napoleon, he retreated to Egypt.  Later in July, 1799, he defeated 10,000 Turks at Aboukir, returning to France shortly after.

Rosetta Stone Discovery- The Rosetta stone is a basalt slab with identical texts inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. Priests of Ptolemy V usually did the inscribing. The Rosetta stone was found by Napoleon's men near N Egypt in 1799.

Battle of the Pyramids- Napoleon defeated the Egyptian army and has temporary control over Egypt. Napoleon had also got his hands on grain that he was to take back to France.

Lord Horatio Nelson's role (1758-1805)- Lord Horatio Nelson was a British admiral. He was the most famous of Britain's naval heroes.

Battle of the Nile- Another of the Egyptian battles was the battle of the Nile in Aboukir Bay, where Napoleon's fleet was destroyed, and he decided to invade Syria.

War of the Second Coalition is fought (1798-1801)

Describe the war and its participants- The second coalition consisted of Britain, Austria, and Russia. The British navy continued to destroy French shipping with its attacks.Alliance against France- Rome was an alliance against France. Rome was captured by a Napoleonic army.

Napoleon's defeat of the Second Coalition- Napoleon had come up with a plan that he would attack all the different nations at once. He had defeated nations in the coalition one at a time.

Treaty of Luneville- The treaty of Luneville was signed in 1801, between France and Austria. The treaty confirmed and supplemented the terms of the treaty

Treaty of Amiens(1802)- he treaty of Amiens was signed in 1802. France, Spain, the Batavian Republic, and Great Britain signed this treaty. England was to give up most conquests made in the wars and France was to evacuate Naples and restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power and becomes first consul (1799)-

How does he come to power?- When Napoleon returned to France, the Directory was a mess.  He, in his selfish way, saw this as the perfect time for self-advancement.  He worked with Emmanuel Sieyes to overthrow the Directory.  He succeeded and set up a new government called the Consulate.  He was the first of three consuls, and about three years later was made Consul for life.

The Constitution of 1799- was run by Napoleon. He over through Sieyes

Consulate- The Consulate was the government Napoleon set up when he returned to France, after overthrowing the Directory with Emmanuel Sieyes.

The Concordat of 1801 establishes a reconciliation between France and the Papacy (1801)

What did it do?- The concordat of 1801 reestablished the Roman Catholic Church in France.

Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)- had developed the new concordat once napoleon had lost power. 

Civil Constitution of Clergy- was put into action July 2, 1790. gave civilians the power to pick who that want as bishop.

Napoleon becomes first consul for life (1802)

The Napoleonic Empire / Map (1804)

hereditary emperor- Napoleon I was a hereditary emperor.  He created the Consulate.

Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824)- was Josaphines son who was Napoleons wife.

Napoleon's divorce 1809)-  Napoleon had divorced his wife because she could not give him a son to take his place. 

Archduchess Marie Louise (1791-1847)- was Napoleons wife after his divorce. She was the daughter of the king of Austria which gave them an alliance.

Napoleonic Administration- was the way that Napoleon had ruled the government. 

Financial Reforms- he kept lower prices on things so people would not have to pay as much and would rally around him.

Centralized Government- he had made the government more civilized to what he wanted it to be.

Napoleonic Code 1807 (into effect 1804)- was a law that Napoleon had made for the way people are to live under his control. 

Educational Reform/ University of France (1806)- he had built schools so that kids could have an education.

Napoleonic Wars (1805-1815)-

War of the Third Coalition (1805-1807)- it was a very bad war of its time was Napoleon against Britain.

British Naval Victory at Trafalgar- where Napoleon was defeted. Also where Haratio Nelson died.

French Victories on Land- he had attacked the Martello towers to have victory on land.

Treaty of Pressburg-came into action during the third coalition. Was with Britain and France.

Napoleon creates the Confederation of the Rhine and abolishes the Holy Roman Empire (1806)

Describe what it did.- The confederation of the Rhine was a league of German states formed by Emperor Napoleon I in 1806. He formed this confederation after his defeat of the Austrians at Austerlitz. Almost all German states except Austria and Prussia joined the confederation. The members disavowed their allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire, and Francis II.

 

Treaties of Tilsit- Negotiations by King Frederick William III of Prussia, an ally of Russia, led to the treaties of Tilsit of July 7 and July 9, 1807. France made peace with Russia in the first treaty. This treaty recognized the grand duchy of Warsaw and secretly promised to mediate between France and England.

 

Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825)- Alexander I was czar of Russia. Frédéric César influenced Alexander I. In 1805, Alexander I joined the coalition against Napoleon. After the Russian defeat over Austerlitz and Friedland, Alexander formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit, and joined Napoleon's continental system.

 

King Frederick William III (1797-1840)- King William III was the King of Prussia. King William III fought against France during the French Revolution from 1792 to 1794. He took the throne in 1797and then rebuilt the economy and the army. In 1805 he joined the allies against France.

 

 

Napoleon's brothers Kings- Napoleon's brothers, Joseph, Louis, and Jerome, were kings like Napoleon.

Joseph (1768-1844)- Joseph Bonaparte became a member of the Council of Five Hundred for Corsica. He later negotiated a treaty with the United States and represented France in the peace negotiations at Lunéville and Amiens. In 1806 Napoleon made him king of Naples, however, he did not rule very effectively. in 1808 he became king of Spain instead.

 

Louis (1778-1846)- Louis Bonaparte was king of Holland. Napoleon forced Louis to abdicate because he defied the continental system. He eventually died in Italy.

 

Jerome(1784-1860)- Jérôme Bonaparte was king of Westphalia, fought in the Russian campaign, and led a division at Waterloo. He served in the navy and then was sent to the West Indies. He was known more for his extravagant irresponsibility than for his administrative or military skill.

Napoleon establishes the continental system (1806)

Describe what it did.- The continental system was a policy adopted by the French government to prevent Great Britain from trading with other European nations. Napoleon wanted Europe to be a self-sufficient nation. Eventually, the British used a blockade to prevent US ships from passing through.

Berlin Decree of 1806- Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree in November 1806. The decree declared the British Isles to be in a state of blockade and prohibited all commerce or correspondence with the country.

 

Milan Decree 1807- Napoleon issued the Milan Decree in December of 1807. The Milan Decree declared that any vessel that had been searched by a British government was to be considered a British ship, made a voyage to Great Britain, or paid duty to the British government was to be considered a British vessel and treated as such.

 

The Peninsular War- The Peninsular War was a phase of the Napoleonic Wars that were fought in the lberian Peninsula by Great Britain, Portugal, and Spanish guerillas against Napoleonic France from 1808 to 1814.

 

Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852)- Sir Arthur Wellesley was knighted in 1805. In 1808 he joined Portugal in its revolt against the French. He defeated the French at Roliça and Vimeiro. When he returned to England, he received many honors and became duke of Wellington. He later on became known as "the iron duke."

Conflict on Other Fronts (1808-1810)

 

Austria- Austria suffered many defeats in the Napoleonic Wars. During these wars, Napoleon fought several European states. Some of the states were Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria

 

Battle of Wagram (July 1809)- Wagram is the place in which Napoleon gained one of his most brilliant victories. The Austrians were forced to retreat because of Napoleon's "grand battery." The "grand battery," was made up of 100 guns. Over 70,000 people died during the battle.

Treaty of Schonbrunn (Oct. 1809)- The treaty of Schönbrunn was a treaty of peace between France and Austria with the latter surrendering much of its territory and joining the Continental System.

 

Plans to restore the French Empire in America (1803)-

Louisiana territory (1803)- On April 10, 1803, Napoleon notified François de Barbé-Marbois, telling him that he was considering giving all the Louisiana territory to the United States. The United States agreed to Marbois' price of 60 million francs plus the assumption of American claims against France. The total came out to about 15 million dollars.

 

War of 1812

Describe the happenings of the War- In 1812, Americans declared war against Britain because they were angered by the stopping of US merchant vessel ships by the British navy. The war of 1812 eventually ended in a draw. The war was only a small inconvenience for Britain in its struggle against Napoleon.

Napoleon fights his unsuccessful Russian campaign (1812)

Invasion of Russia- Almost all of Europe was under Napoleons control when he planned to force the Czar Alexander I to submit to a treaty that he had done four years before.

 

Prince Mikhail Barclay de Tollay (1761-1818)- Commander of Russian forces in 1812 where he was defeated and replaced by Kutuzov but after Kutuzov’s death he became leader again.

 

Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov- He was the leader of the Russian army and through strategy he was one of the factors in Napoleons abdication of the throne.

 

Battle of Borodino- The French and Russian armies took their positions on September 6, 1812, at the Battle of Bordino.  Napoleon's army consisting of 100,000 infantry, 28,000 cavalry and 590 guns.  Kutuzov's army consisted of 72,000 regular infantry, 10,000 semi-trained militia, 17,000 cavalry, 7,000 Cossacks and 640 guns.  The battle began on September 7, 1812, at 6 am.  The war ended with Kutuvoz's order to retreat at 3 am on September 8.  Both sides had brutal losses, the Russians losing around 44,000 men, and the French losing at least 35,000 including fort-three generals in which Napoleon was riding high by the victory but he would soon find out his victories would come to an end.

 

Grand Army entered Moscow- After the Battle of Bordino, the Russians had withdrawn to Moscow, unsure of what to do next.  Kutuzov did not want to hand over Moscow to the French without any sort of resistance.  The Russians had 70,000 men against Napoleon's 100,000, so Kutuzov finally decided to retreat.  Only 25,000 people were still in Moscow when the French arrived on September 14, 1812.  Napoleon's army could not be controlled, and they forced themselves into the palaces and rich houses.  Some time after Napoleon's army arrived at Moscow, the Russians started setting fire to the city, eventually burning it to the ground and burning the crops so that on the way home Napoleon’s people would die of malnutrition.

 

French Retreat (Oct 19, 1812)- Napoleon left on October 19, 1812, with 87,500 infantry, 14,750 cavalry and 533 guns with a trail of some 40,000 carriages and wagons because he was disappointed at his loss of Moscow.

Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeat Napoleon in the Battle of Nations (1813)

Battle of the Nations- At the three day battle at Leipzig, the Battle of the Nations, Napoleon and his forces were outnumbered in every way, forcing the French to retreat.  On March 30, 1814, the allies captured Paris.  Even Napoleon's generals realized it was a lost fight and gave up.  On April 6, 1814, Napoleon had to give up his throne. 

Napoleon abdicates and goes into exile on the island of Elba (1814)

Describe Napoleon's exile.- Napoleon was exiled to the small island of Elba, within sight of Corsica.  He took a few soldiers with him and started a new empire.  He was allowed to keep his title of emperor, and promised to pay two million francs every year to France.  After his exile, European leaders quarreled upon the division of spoils of Napoleon’s empire.  The work of deciding the fate of Europe was done at the Congress of Vienna.

Louis XVIII (1814-1824)- When he came to the throne he accepted the Napoleonic Code and honored the land settlements made during the revolution. Under his rule there was an economic depression and a fear of return of Napoleon. He fled when Napoleon came back from exile.

Napoleon returns to power, beginning the Hundred Days (1815)

Describe the 100 Days- The Hundred Days is the period after the return of Napoleon, from Elba. The Hundred Days are counted from March 20, 1815, when Napoleon arrived in Paris, to June 28, 1815, when Louis XVIII was restored for the second time as king, following Napoleon's disastrous Waterloo campaign and exile where he never returned again.

Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo (1815)

Describe the Battle of Waterloo.- A one day war that began on June 18, 1815 where British forces and Prussian forces fought against Napoleons men. Napoleons men were crushed by the opposing forces and Napoleon was forced once again to abdicate the throne and be exiled where he would never return again.

 

Duke of Wellington- Led the British forces and with the help of Prussian forces under the command of general Blucher he defeated Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo.

 

Gebhard Von Blucher (1742-1819)- He was the leader of the Prussian forces that defeated Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo.

Napoleon dies on Saint Helena (1821)

  

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