The Old Regime: Reign of King Louis XVI (1774-1792)
Marie Antoinette- She was part of the mod and was
killed even though there was no proof that she committed a crime. She was
also the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa. She
married in 1770 to the French dauphin. Her unpopularity helped question the
monarchy in the period before the French Revolution.
Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743) - French cardinal and
chief minister during the reign of King
Financial and administrative problems- Government
spending more money than it takes in Deficit Spending
Demands of the Nobility- The people that owned the
land wanted protection from the French army.
Identify "Jacques Turgot" (1727-1781) - a
French economist and statesmen, he was appointed the chief executive officer of
the district of Limoges, he instituted a number of financial reforms
Identify "Jacques Necker" (1732-1804)- he
was a financial wizard, as an adviser, he urged the king to reduce court
spending, reform government, and improve internal trade by abolishing tariffs
that made trade costly, but when he suggested they tax the 1st and 2nd estates
the nobles and high clergymen forced the king to dismiss the would-be reformer
Explain Louis Reign- Louis XVI was a terrible
ruler. He would make executive decisions without even running them
through his mind, which led to France going into bad debt. Because of
Louis arrogance, the taxes skyrocketed.
The Estates General (1788)
First Estate- The first estate consisted mainly of
priests and other members of the church. They basically live a simple,
hardworking life in comfort and good health. There were also schools,
hospitals and other thing run by the church people
Second Estate- the nobility of the French Society had
the highest paying job and had to pay little or no tax. Some nobles resented
the royal government and hated absolutism.
Bourgeoisie- This was another name for the middle
class people in France. They wanted fair taxes and political power.
Proletariat- They depend on the sale of their own
labor. They are the class of exploited workers and wage earners.
Third Estate- This was made up of the peasants, middle
class and the urban workers.
Peasant life in France- The peasants in France always
kept getting their rights token away by King Louis for the better of the rich
folk. They were required to pay very heavy taxes in which they cannot
afford because they do not have much money. They usually had to steal food from
others to help feed their family. So they lived a very poor life.
Gabelle- a tax imposed on the working class for salted
Corv’ee- unpaid labor to repair roads and
bridges. Peasants were also irritated when the nobles tried to
reinforce old manor dues.
The Middle Class- This class was also called the third
estate and have the highest population and owned the most land by estate. They
were bitter of there constitutional rights.
Urban workers- they were all kinds’ workers from all
classes, like lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors
King Louis XVI summons the
Estates General (1788)
Identify "Elections for the Estates
General"- In 1788 the Assembly of Notables was unsuccessful to work out
the financial crisis of the French government. Then, as his last resort, King
Louis XVI ordered elections for the States-General.
Identify "Demands on the Monarchy"- they had
to keep all the financial records and keep the king on track. They also had to
make remarks regarding other group’s decisions.
Voting by Order- Before thus was put into action; each
estate would meet separately and would cast one vote so the first two estates
would win 2 to 1. They came up with a new system where they all met together
and then the third estate would win by sheer number.
The Third Estate proclaims
itself to be the National Assembly (1789)
Identify "The Tennis Court Oath"- one day
the national assembly found themselves locked out of their meeting place, so
they went to a near by tennis court. Here they vowed how they would
not disband until after they had written a constitution.
Identify "Louis XVI Versus the National
Assembly"- the Third Estate proclaims itself The National Assembly. A few
liberal nobles and many clergy men joined the movement of the Third Estate. The
National Assembly proclaims itself the Constituent National Assembly, with full
authority and power to decree law; their primary task is to draw up and adopt a
A Paris Mob storms
the Bastille (1789)
Describe what happened- The people of the country were
very angry with the monarchy because they felt that the taxation was unfair and
harsh. They also wanted to defend Paris and the National Assembly from the
king's foreign troops.
Jacques Necker's restoration- The idea of Necker as a
financial wizard, held by both people and philosophers, did not suffer when he
left office in 1781. He was therefore recalled in desperation when
Brienne was dismissed in September 1788.
Jean Bailly's promotion (1736-1793) - He was elected
in 1789 from Paris to the States-General and was chosen president of the
National Assembly. He was the Mayor of Paris from 1789 to 1791, but he lost
favor with the popular elements that pushed the French Revolution onward. He
was executed on the 12 of November 1793.
Marquis de Lafayette's promotion (1757-1834) - He was
a French solider and later a General in the America Revolution.
How did the revolt affect most aristocrats? - Bringing
the war with the Habsburgs to a victorious conclusion and at home defeating the
first concerted effort by disgruntled aristocrats
The Great Fear Sweeps the French countryside (1789)
Describe- In the year leading up to the storming of
the Bastille, the economic problems of many common people had become steadily
worse, largely because poor weather conditions had ruined the harvest
Effects- they attacked the residences of their
landlords in hopes of protecting local grain supplies and reducing rents on
The National Assembly approves
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen (1789)
Describe the Declaration of the Rights of Man- the
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizens was approved by the National
Assembly of France, August 26, 1789. This declaration allowed and gained the
people of the city more legal rights
Declaration of the Rights of Women- This declaration
states that man and women are created equal and cannot be treated differently
Mob Action (1789) - Later people wanted to make sure
they got their rights. So people formed mobs and stormed lords' castles and
Political Clubs- There was several political clubs
that were created in France. Some of these groups included the Jacobins,
Cordeliers, and the Feuillants.
The Jacobins- This club was known to be the most
radical. It was formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General. It
was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the
revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.
The Cordeliers- This club was founded in 1790 as the
Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. It provided a
political base for Georges Danton and Jean Paul Marat. After Marat's
assassination the club was led by Jacques René Hébert and it drifted to the
The Feuillants- This club was founded in July, 1791,
when the Jacobins that opposed the petition for the dethronement of the king,
split off and began to meet at the former Feuillant convent. The Feuillants
advocated a constitutional monarchy.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1789)- This
constitution put the French Catholic Church under state control. The bishops
and priests became elected as paid officials.
The National Assembly enacts the Civil Constitution
of the Clergy (1790)
The Constitution of 1791
establishes a constitutional monarchy (1791)
Necker's resignation- After his long years, his final
resignation came in 1790. His last years were spent at "Coppet”, his Swiss
Mirabeau- he was elected in 1789 as a delegate of the
third estate for Aix-en-Provence in the States-General. His clear and practical
ideas, his expressiveness, and his terrifying yet magnificent appearance
exerted a fascination over the delegates and the population.
Mirabeau's death (1791) - He died in Apr., 1791, amid
impressive manifestations of public sorrow and respect, for he had never lost
his popularity with the masses. He was buried in the Panthéon, but his body was
later removed when his dealings with the court were discovered.
Louis XVI and family flee but captured- One night,
June 20, 1791, Alex von Fersen, drove by to pick up the royal family. When they
felt as if it was going very well Louis XVI started to grow careless. Louis
XVI's troops were growing increasingly aware that they were being noticed by
the towns people and lost the location of the King's carriage in the process.
At a town called Sainte-Menehould, Louis was recognized by Jean-Babtiste
Drouet, the town postmaster. When they arrived, they took the King and his
family back to Paris with them (almost as if they were prisoners).
Louis accepts New Constitution (Sept. 14, 1791)-
Because Louis was trying to escape but got caught, his family was brought back
to France, where he was forced to sign a new constitution, which limited the
power of the monarchy.
Other reforms of the National
Abolished titles of nobility- On August 4, 1789 the
nobles of the National Assembly voted to end their privileges. These titles of
nobility contained great privileges of wealth and power. They were often known
for taxing the peasantry.
Reorganized local government- One reform made by the
National Assembly was the reorganization of local government. The constitution
replaced old provinces with 83 departments, abolished old provincial courts and
reformed laws. It also protected private property, and supported free trade,
compensated nobles for land seized, abolished guilds, and forbade city workers
to organize labor unions.
Laissez faire principals- The government was organized
in a laissez faire way which meant that they cannot interfere with the work of
the other people’s businesses.
Legislative Assembly convenes
Conservatives- Over half of the National Assembly were
conservatives. There were horrible fights in Paris because of the April
Moderates (centrists)- The moderates ruled, but their
heir to the throne was assassinated in 1820. Untra-Royalists were brought to
Girondists- They were an arrival with Jacobins. Both
were apart of a convention of rising prices and food shortages, but was
Mountain- They was a group of people that consisted of
the Jacobins and the Cordeliers the ruled France during the Reign of
Terror. A mass of land rising abruptly and to a large height from the
Intervention of Foreign Powers (1791-92)- Louis XVI's
attempted escape from France caused further violence in the countryside, and in
August of 1791 the King of Prussia and the Emperor of Austria issued the
Declaration of Pilnitz; in which they threatened to intervene if necessary to
protect the French monarchy.
Austria-Prussia Alliance- Frederick William greatly
increased the size of the Prussian army and rebuilt the organization of the
state around the military establishment. On April 20, 1792, Prussia
decided to take back Austria so the two countries invaded France. A new government
called the commune put the king in prison and took the power.
France's Legislative Assembly declares war (April 20,
1792)- On April 20, 1792, Prussia decided to take back Austria so the two
countries invaded France. A new government called the commune put the king in
prison and took the power.
The Legislative Assembly
deposes King Louis XVI and calls for the election of the National Convention
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity- A legacy of the Age of
Enlightenment, the motto "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité" first
appeared during the French Revolution. Although it was often called into
question, it finally established itself under the Third Republic. It was
written into the 1958 Constitution and is part nowadays of the French national
Radical Takeover- When the execution of King Louis XVI
was over, the cities became a little chaotic; therefore, to solve these hectic
problems, the National Convention decided that the Jacobins and the Cordeliers
should take over.
Robespierre- He was a shrewd lawyer and politician,
who quickly rose to the leadership of the committee of Public Safety.
Among the Jacobins, his selfless dedication to the revolution earned him the
nickname, “the incorruptible”. Enemies called him a tyrant
Danton- In the new republic, he became minister of
justice and virtual head of the Provisional Executive Council. When France
suffered military reverses, Danton began to support a peace-making foreign On
Mar. 30, 1794, Danton and his followers were charged with conspiracy to
overthrow the government. The trial was a mockery, and Danton was guillotined.
Marat- He studied medicine in England, got some repute
as a doctor in London and Paris, and wrote scientific and medical works (some
in English), but was frustrated in his attempts to win official recognition for
Sans-culottes- This was a working-class of men and
women in Paris, who pushed the revolution into more radical action. By
1791, many sans-culottes demanded a republic. They also wanted the
government to guarantee them a living wage.
King Louis XVI is executed (1793)- France was declared
by the National Assembly to be a Republic. Louis XVI was on trial and also
sentenced to be put to death in 1793.
The Reign of Terror begins
Committee of public safety- This committee was
established to deal with the threats of France, this convention created the
committee of public safety. This 12 member committee had almost absolute
power as it battled to save the revolution.
Jacobins- This group were a revolutionary political
club which was mostly populated of the middle-class lawyers or intellectuals.
Republic of virtue- Robespierre, the strong leader,
believed that France could only become a republic of virtue if all of the
criminals lose their heads. That is when he came up with the idea of using the
guillotine as a way to execute criminals.
Justification of extreme violence- Robespierre believed
that every criminal should be executed, which pretty much changed the way of
how people think because now they believed that bad people should just die so
they kill anyone bad.
Revolutionary tribunal- This is a kings funeral.
The Revolutionary tribunal was when the new idea came up where they believed in
quick court trials, in which they would quickly sentence the victim to death.
How many dead?- It is estimated that around 40,000
people were killed, included Marie Antoinette the queen. They were executed
during the reign of terror. The Reign of Terror effectively ended when the
National Assembly, whose members began to fear for there own lives, condemned
its leader Maximilien.
The National Convention
abolishes the monarchy (1792)
The War of the First Coalition is fought (1792-1797)-
These wars were really bad and the first coalition fighters went to war.
Lev’ee en masse- The idea that no single power could
come to dominate the continent until the French lev´ee en masse provided the
manpower that could overrun any coalition
Coalition- Coalition is an alliance, especially a
temporary one, of people, factions, parties, or nations. All of the countries
in Europe except France were against France.
French military victories- the French military was
very successful on their victories. They were strong and ready to attack so
they became stronger and stronger so they won more of their battles.
Treaty of Basel- This treaty drove Prussia and Spain
out of the Revolutionary wars
The Thermidorean Reaction
the Reign of Terror (1794)
9 Thermidor- The conspirators of 9 Thermidor became
known as Thermidorean. This is the Year II, in the revolutionary calendar.
Guillotine- This was a machine used to execute people
or cut people's heads off... Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotine invented it because
he believed that "axes were unreliable."
The National Convention drafts
the Constitution of 1795 (1795)
Who controlled it?- The people who controlled the
National Convention constitution were a group of people that consisted of a
directory, or executive of 5 directors, and a 2 house legislature.
How was it controlled?- The directors would rotate
their power from one director to the next after a matter of time. It was pretty
Council of Elders- The Council of Elders consisted of
older wiser people and their place in the government was below the 2 houses of
Dissolving of the National Convention- Like another
group, the National Convention became weak, I think this is because they were
coming up with more ideas like trying to de-Christianize France and believing
that women are not as good as men.
The Directory begins to rule
Financial crisis- There was a big financial crisis
during this time because the leaders were using the money that was suppose to
be used toward the people and used it for themselves; therefore, causing a
financial downfall because no one is aware of where the money is actually
Corruption- The Directory became corrupt and chose not
help the citizens when they needed the help; therefore, the citizens chose
Napoleon to fix the mess they were in.
Exhaustion- The Directory was gaining much power;
however, it wasn’t really working out so the people were exhausted with how the
directory was doing their job
Army- While Napoleon was in power, the strength of the
Army was stronger than ever. They would be able to defeat many countries and
expend the empire. Napoleon was a very strong leader and pushed the army to be
Napoleon Bonaparte is born
birth and childhood- Napoleon Bonaparte was born of
lower noble status in Ajaccio, Corsica on August 15, 1769. His parents
were Carlo Bonaparte, and Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte. He had seven
brothers and sisters, and despised the French.
physical stature (Napoleonic complex)- He was called
the "little Corsican" because of his height of 5' 2", and
constantly teased; he started having dreams of personal glory and
triumph. He was skinny, with brown hair, and blue-gray eyes. He
developed a strong body, learned to swim, fight, and climb trees.
marriage and political significance- Napoleon
regulated economy by controlling prices, encouraging new industries, and built
roads and canals. Napoleon had wife part of the throne with other members of
his family. He had divorced his wife Josephine to marry the niece of Marie
Early military successes
Napoleon's army defeats the Austrians in Northern
Italy (1797)- Napoleon's first big campaign was his attack on Austria.
During one attack he showed his bravery by forcing his way across a burning
bridge. With this he earned the name "Petit Caporal" or
"Little Corporal" in English. He then attacked the Austrians in
Mantua, where troops were sent four different times, all crushed by
Napoleon. In 1797, he came within 80 miles of Vienna when Austria
surrendered. He had won 14 pitched battles and 70 combats.
Treaty of Campo Formio- After the surrender, Napoleon
negotiated a treaty called Campo Formio with Austria. Austria gave up
Netherlands and Lombardy to France. Austria also recognized the Rhine as the
eastern boundary of France. In return, France gave Austria most of the old
1798-1799 French extend their control- the French had
extended their control to Mantua. They had gained control of this after Austria
had tried to get it.
Napoleon Fights his Egyptian
Napoleon's invasion of Egypt/ why?- When Napoleon
wanted to take an army into Egypt, he came up with the idea that if he conquered
Egypt he could attack the English's route to India. He won the battle of
the Pyramids, but his fleet was destroyed at the Battle of the Nile. So,
Napoleon decided to invade Syria. When the English and Turkish troops in Syria
had held up against Napoleon, he retreated to Egypt. Later in July, 1799,
he defeated 10,000 Turks at Aboukir, returning to France shortly after.
Rosetta Stone Discovery- The Rosetta stone is a basalt
slab with identical texts inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. Priests
of Ptolemy V usually did the inscribing. The Rosetta stone was found by
Napoleon's men near N Egypt in 1799.
Battle of the Pyramids- Napoleon defeated the Egyptian
army and has temporary control over Egypt. Napoleon had also got his hands on
grain that he was to take back to France.
Lord Horatio Nelson's role (1758-1805)- Lord Horatio
Nelson was a British admiral. He was the most famous of Britain's naval heroes.
Battle of the Nile- Another of the Egyptian battles
was the battle of the Nile in Aboukir Bay, where Napoleon's fleet was
destroyed, and he decided to invade Syria.
War of the Second Coalition
Describe the war and its participants- The second
coalition consisted of Britain, Austria, and Russia. The British navy continued
to destroy French shipping with its attacks.Alliance against France- Rome was
an alliance against France. Rome was captured by a Napoleonic army.
Napoleon's defeat of the Second Coalition- Napoleon had
come up with a plan that he would attack all the different nations at once. He
had defeated nations in the coalition one at a time.
Treaty of Luneville- The treaty of Luneville was
signed in 1801, between France and Austria. The treaty confirmed and supplemented
the terms of the treaty
Treaty of Amiens(1802)- he treaty of Amiens was signed
in 1802. France, Spain, the Batavian Republic, and Great Britain signed this
treaty. England was to give up most conquests made in the wars and France was
to evacuate Naples and restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.
Napoleon Bonaparte seizes
power and becomes first consul (1799)-
How does he come to power?- When Napoleon returned to
France, the Directory was a mess. He, in his selfish way, saw this as the
perfect time for self-advancement. He worked with Emmanuel Sieyes to
overthrow the Directory. He succeeded and set up a new government called
the Consulate. He was the first of three consuls, and about three years
later was made Consul for life.
The Constitution of 1799- was run by Napoleon. He over
Consulate- The Consulate was the government Napoleon
set up when he returned to France, after overthrowing the Directory with
The Concordat of 1801
establishes a reconciliation between France and the Papacy (1801)
What did it do?- The concordat of 1801 reestablished
the Roman Catholic Church in France.
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)- had developed the new
concordat once napoleon had lost power.
Civil Constitution of Clergy- was put into action July
2, 1790. gave civilians the power to pick who that want as bishop.
Napoleon becomes first consul
for life (1802)
The Napoleonic Empire / Map (1804)
hereditary emperor- Napoleon I was a hereditary
emperor. He created the Consulate.
Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824)- was Josaphines son
who was Napoleons wife.
Napoleon's divorce 1809)- Napoleon had divorced
his wife because she could not give him a son to take his place.
Archduchess Marie Louise (1791-1847)- was Napoleons
wife after his divorce. She was the daughter of the king of Austria which gave
them an alliance.
Napoleonic Administration- was the way that Napoleon
had ruled the government.
Financial Reforms- he kept lower prices on things so
people would not have to pay as much and would rally around him.
Centralized Government- he had made the government
more civilized to what he wanted it to be.
Napoleonic Code 1807 (into effect 1804)- was a law
that Napoleon had made for the way people are to live under his control.
Educational Reform/ University of France (1806)- he had
built schools so that kids could have an education.
Napoleonic Wars (1805-1815)-
War of the Third Coalition (1805-1807)- it was a very
bad war of its time was Napoleon against Britain.
British Naval Victory at Trafalgar- where Napoleon was
defeted. Also where Haratio Nelson died.
French Victories on Land- he had attacked the Martello
towers to have victory on land.
Treaty of Pressburg-came into action during the third
coalition. Was with Britain and France.
Napoleon creates the
Confederation of the Rhine and abolishes the Holy Roman Empire (1806)
Describe what it did.- The confederation of the Rhine
was a league of German states formed by Emperor Napoleon I in 1806. He formed
this confederation after his defeat of the Austrians at Austerlitz. Almost all
German states except Austria and Prussia joined the confederation. The members
disavowed their allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire, and Francis II.
Treaties of Tilsit- Negotiations by King Frederick
William III of Prussia, an ally of Russia, led to the treaties of Tilsit of
July 7 and July 9, 1807. France made peace with Russia in the first treaty.
This treaty recognized the grand duchy of Warsaw and secretly promised to
mediate between France and England.
Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825)- Alexander I was czar of
Russia. Frédéric César influenced Alexander I. In 1805, Alexander I joined the
coalition against Napoleon. After the Russian defeat over Austerlitz and
Friedland, Alexander formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit,
and joined Napoleon's continental system.
King Frederick William III (1797-1840)- King William
III was the King of Prussia. King William III fought against France during the
French Revolution from 1792 to 1794. He took the throne in 1797and then rebuilt
the economy and the army. In 1805 he joined the allies against France.
Napoleon's brothers Kings- Napoleon's brothers,
Joseph, Louis, and Jerome, were kings like Napoleon.
Joseph (1768-1844)- Joseph Bonaparte became a member
of the Council of Five Hundred for Corsica. He later negotiated a treaty with
the United States and represented France in the peace negotiations at Lunéville
and Amiens. In 1806 Napoleon made him king of Naples, however, he did not rule
very effectively. in 1808 he became king of Spain instead.
Louis (1778-1846)- Louis Bonaparte was king of
Holland. Napoleon forced Louis to abdicate because he defied the continental
system. He eventually died in Italy.
Jerome(1784-1860)- Jérôme Bonaparte was king of
Westphalia, fought in the Russian campaign, and led a division at Waterloo. He
served in the navy and then was sent to the West Indies. He was known more for
his extravagant irresponsibility than for his administrative or military skill.
Napoleon establishes the
continental system (1806)
Describe what it did.- The continental system was a
policy adopted by the French government to prevent Great Britain from trading
with other European nations. Napoleon wanted Europe to be a self-sufficient
nation. Eventually, the British used a blockade to prevent US ships from
Berlin Decree of 1806- Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree
in November 1806. The decree declared the British Isles to be in a state of
blockade and prohibited all commerce or correspondence with the country.
Milan Decree 1807- Napoleon issued the Milan Decree in
December of 1807. The Milan Decree declared that any vessel that had been
searched by a British government was to be considered a British ship, made a
voyage to Great Britain, or paid duty to the British government was to be
considered a British vessel and treated as such.
The Peninsular War- The Peninsular War was a phase of
the Napoleonic Wars that were fought in the lberian Peninsula by Great Britain,
Portugal, and Spanish guerillas against Napoleonic France from 1808 to 1814.
Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852)- Sir Arthur Wellesley
was knighted in 1805. In 1808 he joined Portugal in its revolt against the
French. He defeated the French at Roliça and Vimeiro. When he returned to
England, he received many honors and became duke of Wellington. He later on
became known as "the iron duke."
Conflict on Other Fronts
Austria- Austria suffered many defeats in the
Napoleonic Wars. During these wars, Napoleon fought several European states.
Some of the states were Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria
Battle of Wagram (July 1809)- Wagram is the place in
which Napoleon gained one of his most brilliant victories. The Austrians were
forced to retreat because of Napoleon's "grand battery." The
"grand battery," was made up of 100 guns. Over 70,000 people died
during the battle.
Treaty of Schonbrunn (Oct. 1809)- The treaty of
Schönbrunn was a treaty of peace between France and Austria with the latter
surrendering much of its territory and joining the Continental System.
Plans to restore the French Empire in America (1803)-
Louisiana territory (1803)- On April 10, 1803,
Napoleon notified François de Barbé-Marbois, telling him that he was
considering giving all the Louisiana territory to the United States. The United
States agreed to Marbois' price of 60 million francs plus the assumption of
American claims against France. The total came out to about 15 million dollars.
War of 1812
Describe the happenings of the War- In 1812, Americans
declared war against Britain because they were angered by the stopping of US
merchant vessel ships by the British navy. The war of 1812 eventually ended in
a draw. The war was only a small inconvenience for Britain in its struggle
Napoleon fights his
unsuccessful Russian campaign (1812)
Invasion of Russia- Almost all of Europe was under
Napoleons control when he planned to force the Czar Alexander I to submit to a
treaty that he had done four years before.
Prince Mikhail Barclay de Tollay (1761-1818)-
Commander of Russian forces in 1812 where he was defeated and replaced by
Kutuzov but after Kutuzov’s death he became leader again.
Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov- He was the leader of the
Russian army and through strategy he was one of the factors in Napoleons
abdication of the throne.
Battle of Borodino- The French and Russian armies took
their positions on September 6, 1812, at the Battle of Bordino.
Napoleon's army consisting of 100,000 infantry, 28,000 cavalry and 590
guns. Kutuzov's army consisted of 72,000 regular infantry, 10,000
semi-trained militia, 17,000 cavalry, 7,000 Cossacks and 640 guns. The
battle began on September 7, 1812, at 6 am. The war ended with Kutuvoz's
order to retreat at 3 am on September 8. Both sides had brutal losses,
the Russians losing around 44,000 men, and the French losing at least 35,000
including fort-three generals in which Napoleon was riding high by the victory
but he would soon find out his victories would come to an end.
Grand Army entered Moscow- After the Battle of
Bordino, the Russians had withdrawn to Moscow, unsure of what to do next.
Kutuzov did not want to hand over Moscow to the French without any sort of
resistance. The Russians had 70,000 men against Napoleon's 100,000, so
Kutuzov finally decided to retreat. Only 25,000 people were still in
Moscow when the French arrived on September 14, 1812. Napoleon's army
could not be controlled, and they forced themselves into the palaces and rich houses.
Some time after Napoleon's army arrived at Moscow, the Russians started setting
fire to the city, eventually burning it to the ground and burning the crops so
that on the way home Napoleon’s people would die of malnutrition.
French Retreat (Oct 19, 1812)- Napoleon left on
October 19, 1812, with 87,500 infantry, 14,750 cavalry and 533 guns with a
trail of some 40,000 carriages and wagons because he was disappointed at his
loss of Moscow.
Russia, Prussia, and Austria
defeat Napoleon in the Battle of Nations (1813)
Battle of the Nations- At the three day battle at
Leipzig, the Battle of the Nations, Napoleon and his forces were outnumbered in
every way, forcing the French to retreat. On March 30, 1814, the allies
captured Paris. Even Napoleon's generals realized it was a lost fight and
gave up. On April 6, 1814, Napoleon had to give up his throne.
Napoleon abdicates and goes
into exile on the island of Elba (1814)
Describe Napoleon's exile.- Napoleon was exiled to the
small island of Elba, within sight of Corsica. He took a few soldiers
with him and started a new empire. He was allowed to keep his title of
emperor, and promised to pay two million francs every year to France.
After his exile, European leaders quarreled upon the division of spoils of
Napoleon’s empire. The work of deciding the fate of Europe was done at
the Congress of Vienna.
Louis XVIII (1814-1824)- When he came to the throne he
accepted the Napoleonic Code and honored the land settlements made during the
revolution. Under his rule there was an economic depression and a fear of
return of Napoleon. He fled when Napoleon came back from exile.
Napoleon returns to power,
beginning the Hundred Days (1815)
Describe the 100 Days- The Hundred Days is the period
after the return of Napoleon, from Elba. The Hundred Days are counted from
March 20, 1815, when Napoleon arrived in Paris, to June 28, 1815, when Louis
XVIII was restored for the second time as king, following Napoleon's disastrous
Waterloo campaign and exile where he never returned again.
Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo
Describe the Battle of Waterloo.- A one day war that
began on June 18, 1815 where British forces and Prussian forces fought against
Napoleons men. Napoleons men were crushed by the opposing forces and Napoleon
was forced once again to abdicate the throne and be exiled where he would never
Duke of Wellington- Led the British forces and with
the help of Prussian forces under the command of general Blucher he defeated
Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo.
Gebhard Von Blucher (1742-1819)- He was the leader of
the Prussian forces that defeated Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo.
Napoleon dies on Saint Helena