November 28 2005
Suffrage- The definition of suffrage is that it is
the right to
vote. Suffrage was to be extended to all male citizens, not just property
owners, which was called by the Convention.
sans-culottes- Sans- Culottes were working-class
woman. Sans- Culottes pushed the revolution into more radical action.
Abdicate- To abdicate means to step down form power.
XVIII was recognized as the leader by the Victors when Napoleon abdicated the
throne and was exiled to Elba.
deficit spending- Means that the government
is spending more
money than it takes in. The financial crisis for France was in part by years of
deficit spending and Louis XIV leaving France deeply in debt.
Plebiscite- A plebiscite is a ballot in which voters
say yes or
no to an issue. Napoleon held a plebiscite in which each time the French
strongly supported him.
blockade- A blockade involves shutting
off ports to
keep people or supplies from moving in or out. In response to the Continental
System the British responded with its own blockade of European ports.
bourgeoisie- The bourgeoisie people were the people
the middle class. The bourgeoisie included the prosperous bankers, merchants,
and manufacturers who popped up the French economy.
nationalism- Nationalism is an aggressive feeling of
pride in and
devotion to one’s country. Revolution and war gave people a strong sense of
national identity which led to the spread of nationalism.
Émigré- Émigrés were nobles, clergy and others who
revolutionary France. Émigrés reported attacks on their privileges, property,
religion, and even their lives.
Louis XVI- Louis XVI was the king of France when the
Revolution started. He put on trial as a traitor of France and was executed
along with his wife, Mary Antoinette and also their son Louis XVII died of
unknown causes in the dungeons of the Revolution.
Clemens von Metternich- Metternich was the prince
Austria who attended the congress of Vienna. Metternich was dedicated to
restoring the status quo of 1792.
Napoleon- Was born on the French- ruled island of
minor nobles and at the age of 20 he was ready to make a name for himself. He
conquered almost all of Europe using different tactics every battle but lost at
the battle of the Nations and was exiled to Elba Island where he later escaped.
He returned to power but lost the battle of Waterloo where once again he was
exiled in which he would never return.
Olympe de Gouges- Was a journalist who demanded
equal rights in
the Declaration of the Rights of Woman in which she gained some rights.
Rosbespierre-Was a shrewd lawyer and politician who quickly
rose to leadership f the Committee of Public Society and earned the nickname “
the incorruptible” by his fellow Jacobins and a tyrant by is enemies.
Jacques Louis David- Was the leading artist of
time because he immortalized such stirring events such as Tennis Court Oath and
later the reign of Napoleon. He helped shape the way future generations
pictured the French Revolution.
who denounced Fr. Rev? Why?- The Nobles and the clergy
members denounced the French revolution. They did it because if the monarchy
was overthrown, the first class would lose their special privileges that the
peasants did not have which all in all would be a negative experience.
Reign of Terror-The Reign of Terror was a
stage during the
French Revolution that lasted from July 1793 to July 1794. About 40,000 people
died during the reign of terror, 15 percent of the deaths being nobles and
clergy members while another 15 percent were middle- class citizens.
Napoleon annexed who? Napoleon annexed the
Netherlands and Belgium as well as parts of Italy and Germany.
Congress of Vienna- The chief goal of the
decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of
power and protecting the system of monarchy.
Alexander II-Came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean
in 1861 he issued a royal decree emancipating or freeing serfs. He also set up
a system of local government
in which he elected assemblies called zemstvos. He
also introduced legal reforms based on the ideas such as trial by jury.
Francis Joseph- Took over rule at the age
of 18 years old and
ruled till 1916. He granted a new constitution that set up a legislature but
was ruled by mostly Germans. Under the Dual Monarchy of Austria- Hungary
Francis Joseph ruled as the emperor of both Hungary and Austria but discontent
and restlessness grew under his rule.
Giuseppe Garibaldi-He wanted to create an Italian
republic but did not hesitate to accept aid from the monarchist Cavour. He
recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers and provided weapons and
allowed two ships to take the men. Under his command the men untied Italy.
Otto von Bismarck- Came from Prussia’s
class which consisted of conservative landowning nobles. He was made prime
Minster in 1862 and he united the German States under Prussian rule using the
policy named “blood and iron”.
William II- He succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser on
shocked the Europe when he asked Bismarck to resign. He resisted efforts to
introduce democratic reforms and he lavished funds on the German military
machine already the most powerful in Europe. He launched an ambitious campaign
to expand the German navy and win overseas empire to rival those of Britain and
Camillo Cavour- He came from a noble family
liberal goals and he was a flexible, practical, crafty politician who was
willing to use almost any means to his achieve his goals.
Anarchist- Anarchists were people who
wanted to abolish all government. Anarchists turned to sabotage and violence to
go against the conservative government.
Refugee- Refugees are people who flee their homeland
safety elsewhere. The Jews escaped Russia and became refugees in which a large
amount of them went to the United States.
Pogrom- Progroms were encouraged mob attacks on
progroms gangs beat and killed Jews and looted and burned their homes and
stores in which the police did nothing to stop the violence.
Realpolitik- Realpolitik is the realistic politics based
tough-minded evaluation of the eneds of the state. Bismarcks success was in
part because he mastered realpolitik and his storng will which allowed him the
ability to manipulate others.
Zemstvo- Zemstvos were the elected assemblies during
II’s reign. The Zemstvos were made responsible for matters such as road
repair, schools, and agriculture.
economic development in Germany- The basics of economic
development in Germany were in part to the ample iron and the coal resources
available. Between 1871 and 1914 the business tycoon August Thyssen built a
small steel factory of 70 workers into a giant empire with 50,000 employees.
Nationalism threatened? who? (which country
Nationalism was threatened by the Balkan Empire. The great European
empire became stirred up with the nationalists ambitions which led to problems.
Discontent spread through Russia months after Bloody Sunday. The discontent
spread so much that Nicolaus was forced to announce reforms which is known as
the Revolution of 1905