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Danny Kelchner



November 28 2005


Ch. 19

Suffrage- The definition of suffrage is that it is the right to vote. Suffrage was to be extended to all male citizens, not just property owners, which was called by the Convention. 


sans-culottes- Sans- Culottes were working-class men and woman. Sans- Culottes pushed the revolution into more radical action.


Abdicate- To abdicate means to step down form power. Louis XVIII was recognized as the leader by the Victors when Napoleon abdicated the throne and was exiled to Elba.


deficit spending- Means that the government is spending more money than it takes in. The financial crisis for France was in part by years of deficit spending and Louis XIV leaving France deeply in debt.


Plebiscite- A plebiscite is a ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue. Napoleon held a plebiscite in which each time the French strongly supported him.


blockade- A blockade involves shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out. In response to the Continental System the British responded with its own blockade of European ports.


bourgeoisie- The bourgeoisie people were the people representing the middle class. The bourgeoisie included the prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers who popped up the French economy. 


nationalism- Nationalism is an aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Revolution and war gave people a strong sense of national identity which led to the spread of nationalism.


Émigré- Émigrés were nobles, clergy and others who had fled revolutionary France. Émigrés reported attacks on their privileges, property, religion, and even their lives.


Louis XVI- Louis XVI was the king of France when the French Revolution started. He put on trial as a traitor of France and was executed along with his wife, Mary Antoinette and also their son Louis XVII died of unknown causes in the dungeons of the Revolution.


Clemens von Metternich- Metternich was the prince of Austria who attended the congress of Vienna. Metternich was dedicated to restoring the status quo of 1792.


Napoleon- Was born on the French- ruled island of Corsica to minor nobles and at the age of 20 he was ready to make a name for himself. He conquered almost all of Europe using different tactics every battle but lost at the battle of the Nations and was exiled to Elba Island where he later escaped. He returned to power but lost the battle of Waterloo where once again he was exiled in which he would never return.


Olympe de Gouges- Was a journalist who demanded equal rights in the Declaration of the Rights of Woman in which she gained some rights.


Rosbespierre-Was a shrewd lawyer and politician who quickly rose to leadership f the Committee of Public Society and earned the nickname “ the incorruptible” by his fellow Jacobins and a tyrant by is enemies.


Jacques Louis David- Was the leading artist of his time because he immortalized such stirring events such as Tennis Court Oath and later the reign of Napoleon. He helped shape the way future generations pictured the French Revolution.


who denounced Fr. Rev? Why?- The Nobles and the clergy members denounced the French revolution. They did it because if the monarchy was overthrown, the first class would lose their special privileges that the peasants did not have which all in all would be a negative experience.


Reign of Terror-The Reign of Terror was a stage during the French Revolution that lasted from July 1793 to July 1794. About 40,000 people died during the reign of terror, 15 percent of the deaths being nobles and clergy members while another 15 percent were middle- class citizens.


Napoleon annexed who? Napoleon annexed the Netherlands and Belgium as well as parts of Italy and Germany.


Congress of Vienna- The chief goal of the decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy.


Ch. 23

Alexander II-Came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War and in 1861 he issued a royal decree emancipating or freeing serfs. He also set up a system of local government

in which he elected assemblies called zemstvos. He also introduced legal reforms based on the ideas such as trial by jury.


Francis Joseph- Took over rule at the age of 18 years old and ruled till 1916. He granted a new constitution that set up a legislature but was ruled by mostly Germans. Under the Dual Monarchy of Austria- Hungary Francis Joseph ruled as the emperor of both Hungary and Austria but discontent and restlessness grew under his rule.


Giuseppe Garibaldi-He wanted to create an Italian republic but did not hesitate to accept aid from the monarchist Cavour. He recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers and provided weapons and allowed two ships to take the men. Under his command the men untied Italy.


Otto von Bismarck- Came from Prussia’s Junker class which consisted of conservative landowning nobles. He was made prime Minster in 1862 and he united the German States under Prussian rule using the policy named “blood and iron”.


William II- He succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser on 1888 and shocked the Europe when he asked Bismarck to resign. He resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms and he lavished funds on the German military machine already the most powerful in Europe. He launched an ambitious campaign to expand the German navy and win overseas empire to rival those of Britain and France.


Camillo Cavour- He came from a noble family but favored liberal goals and he was a  flexible, practical, crafty politician who was willing to use almost any means to his achieve his goals.


Anarchist- Anarchists were people who wanted to abolish all government. Anarchists turned to sabotage and violence to go against the conservative government.


Refugee- Refugees are people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere. The Jews escaped Russia and became refugees in which a large amount of them went to the United States.


Pogrom- Progroms were encouraged mob attacks on Jews. During progroms gangs beat and killed Jews and looted and burned their homes and stores in which the police did nothing to stop the violence.


Realpolitik- Realpolitik is the realistic politics based on tough-minded evaluation of the eneds of the state. Bismarcks success was in part because he mastered realpolitik and his storng will which allowed him the ability to manipulate others.


Zemstvo- Zemstvos were the elected assemblies during Alexander II’s reign.  The Zemstvos were made responsible for matters such as road repair, schools, and agriculture.


economic development in Germany- The basics of economic development in Germany were in part to the ample iron and the coal resources available. Between 1871 and 1914 the business tycoon August Thyssen built a small steel factory of 70 workers into a giant empire with 50,000 employees.


Nationalism threatened? who? (which country the most)- Nationalism was threatened by the Balkan Empire.  The great European empire became stirred up with the nationalists ambitions which led to problems.


Revolution of1905- Discontent spread through Russia months after Bloody Sunday. The discontent spread so much that Nicolaus was forced to announce reforms which is known as the Revolution of 1905 

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Mr. Haskels History