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  Chapter 5 Outline

1. Minoan Civilization
a. we don not know what the people called themselves, but the person who uncovered the ruins called them Minoans after Minos
b. their civilization was based on trade, not conquest because of their location on the sea.
c.  by 1400 BC the Minoan Civilization had vanished.  Archaeologists are not sure of the cause
2. Rulers of Mycenae
a. the Mycenaeans were an Indo-European people, like the Aryans who swept into India and conquered the mainland before overrunning Crete
b. The Mycenaens were best known for their part in the Trojan War, when they were in conflict with Troy
c. for centuries most people thought of the Trojan War as a legend, but it has now been determined by scholars that the Trojan War really did happen.
3. The Age of Homer
a. Not long after the fall of Troy, Mycenaean civilization fell under the attack of sea raiders
b. we get most of our information about this time period from the writings of Homer
c. The Iliad is our information on the Trojan War, the Odyssey tells of the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus
4. Looking Ahead
a. for centuries after the Dorian invasions, the Greeks lived in small, isolated villages
b. during this time period there were no written records
c. over time the stories of Mycenae and Crete became part of the Greek heritage
5. Geography: The Greek Homeland
a. Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula, which extends into the eastern Mediterranean Sea
b. the Greeks did not create a large empire like the Egyptians, they built many small city-states, which were cut off from one another by water or land
c. by 750 BC rapid population growth was forcing many Greeks to leave their own overcrowded valleys
6. The Polis
a. after expanding their world the Greeks evolved a unique version of the city-state called the polis
b. the population of each city-state was fairly small
c. a monarchy is a government in which a king or queen exercises central power
d. an aristocracy is when the landholding elite rule
e. a phalanx was a massive formation of heavily armed soldiers
7. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers
a. the Spartans were Dorians who conquered Laconia
b. their government included two kings and a council of elders who advised monarchs
c. citizens were male native born Spartans over the age of thirty, at the age of seven a Spartan prepared to be part of a military state
d. at the age of twenty a man was able to marry, but had to live in the barracks for ten more years after that
e. women had the right to inherit property, but had to listen to their husbands or fathers
f. the Spartans isolated themselves form other Greeks
8. Athens: A Limited Democracy
a. the government of Athens changed from first monarchy to aristocracy, then a democracy
b. a democracy is a government by the people
c. in 546 BC the Athenian tyrant Pisistratus took power
d. in Athens women had no share in public life
e. girls did not go to school, however boys attended school if their families could afford to send them to it
9. Forces for Unity
a. strong local ties, an independent spirit, and economic rivalry led to fighting among the Greek city-states
b. like most other ancient people the Greeks were polytheistic, and believed that the gods lived in Mount Olympus in northern Greece
c. as trade expanded the Greek people met new people and felt superior to them, and called them barbaroi, which later turned into barbarian
10. The Persian Wars
a. by 500 BC Athens had emerged as the wealthiest Greek city-state, but soon faced a fearsome threat from the outside, the Persians
b. the might Persian army landed at Marathon, and outnumbered the Athenian forces two to one, but were forced to retreat to their ships
c. later thought the Persians marched south and burned Athens, the city was empty though, and the Athenian warships trapped and sank the Persian fleet, and the next year the Greeks defeated the Persians on land
11. Athens in the Age of Pericles
a. Pericles believed that all male citizens regardless of wealth or social class, should take part in the government
b. the Athenians had a direct democracy in which a large number of male citizens took part in the day to day affairs of government
c. Athens prospered during the Age of Pericles, Pericles turned Athens into cultural center of Greece
12. Greek against Greek
a. many Greeks resented Athenian domination, and Sparta and the other enemies of Athens supported oligarchy, while the Athenians still went with democracy
b. when Sparta invaded Athens, Pericles allowed people from the surrounding countryside to move inside the city walls.  Because of this a terrible plague broke out and wiped out nearly one third of the population of Athens, including Pericles himself
c. the Peloponnesian War ended Athenian greatness, and a new power rose in Macedonia
13. Lovers of Wisdom
a. philosophers, which meant lovers of wisdom, explored many subjects, form mathematics and physics to music and logic, or rational thinking
b. students were urged to develop skills in rhetoric, the art of skillful speaking
c. the most famous of the Sophists was Socrates
14. Death of a Philosopher
a. most of the information that we know about Socrates has come from his student Plato. 
b. when he was about 70 years old Socrates was put on trial, his enemies accused him of corrupting the city’s youth and failing to respect the gods.  They condemned him to death
c. Socrates accepted the death penalty, and drank a cup of poison to kill himself
15. Ideas About Government
a. Plato emphasized the importance of reason
b. Plato wrote a book called the Republic in which he described his vision of an ideal state
c. Plato’s most famous student Aristotle developed his own ideas about the best kind of government, he was suspicious of democracy, and he favored rule by a single strong and virtuous leader
16. The Search for Beauty and Order
a. the most famous Greek temple is the Parthenon, was dedicated to the goddess Athena
b. a towering figure of Athena stood inside the Parthenon
c.  the only Greek paintings to survive are on vases and other pottery, they offer intriguing views on Greek life
17. Poetry and Drama
a. the first Greek plays evolved out of religious festivals, especially those held in Athens to honor the gods
b. Greek dramas were usually based on popular myths and legends
c. Greek tragedies told of stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster
d. The Greek comedies were humorous plays that mocked people or customs
18. The Writing of History
a. the Greeks applied observation, reason, and logic to the study of history
b. Herodotus visited many lands and collected information from people who remembered the events he chronicled
c. Thucydides, a few years younger than Herodotus wrote about the Peloponnesian War, a much less happy subject for the Greeks
19. Macedonia Ambitions
a. when Philip gained the Macedonia throne in 359 BC he dreamed of conquering the prosperous, warring city-states to the south
b. he had even greater dreams, he wanted to lead a force of Macedonians and Greeks to conquer the Persian empire
c. before he could achieve this plan he was murdered at his daughter’s wedding feast
20. A Mighty Conqueror
a. even though hew was only 20 years old Alexander was an experienced soldier, over the years he earned the name of Alexander the Great
b. like his father he wanted to conquer the Persian empire, and he did so
c. after many invasions he suddenly fell ill to a fever and died
21. The Legacy of Alexander
a. Alexander founded many new cities, most of them named after him
b. after his death, a vital new culture emerged, which is known as Hellenistic civilization, a blend of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences, Hellenistic civilization would flourish for centuries
c. throughout the Hellenistic world, royal women held considerable power, working alongside husbands or sons who were the actual rulers
22. Hellenistic Civilization
a. Zeno founded Stoicism, which was a new school of philosophy
b. Hippocrates studied the cause of illnesses and looked for cures
c. astronomer Aristarchus argued that the Earth rotated on its axis
23. Looking Ahead
a. Rome came to dominate during the Hellenistic period
b. Greek ideas about law, freedom, justice, and government have influenced political thinking to the present day
c. all of the city-states bitter rivalries cost them their freedom

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Mr. Haskels History