annul-annul means to cancel. Henry VIII asked the pope to annul his marriage
gravity-Gravity was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton. He said that it was the force that kept all
of the planets in their orbits around the sun.
patron-a patron was a financial supporter of the arts.
Lorenzo was a well known patron.
perspective-rules that Renaissance artists learned. It made distant objects
smaller than those close to the viewer.
theocracy-was a government run by the church leaders. The first theocracy
was set up by Calvin.
John Calvin-Set up the first theocracy. He taught that God was all powerful
and that humans were by nature sinful.
Henry VIII-Led the final break with the Catholic Church. He wanted to end
papal control over the English church.
Leonardo da Vinci-He was one of the most brilliant painters of Florence.
He made sketches of flying machines and underwater boats before the first airplane or submarine was invented.
de' Medici-He was the best known of the Medicis. He was a generous patron and during difficult times help to hold Florence
Niccolo Machiavelli-He published The Prince in 1513. In The Prince he talks about politics.
heliocentric-Heliocentric is a model of the universe in which the sun is the center. Nicolaus Copernicus
is the person who proposed this.
humanism-It was an intellectual movement in the heart of the Italian Renaissance.
Humanism focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that had occupied medieval thinkers.
was a pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime. During the Middle Ages the church only granted indulgence
for good deeds.
predestination-It was the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation. This idea
was preached by Calvin.
recant-A recant is when someone gives up his or her views. The Church tried
to persuade Luther to recant his views but he refused.
Copernicus-He was the person who proposed
a heliocentric universe. He wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
Durer-In 1494 he traveled
to Italy to study the techniques of the Italian masters.
Luther-Drew up a list of arguments against
the indulgences that were known as his 95 theses.
Newton-He discovered gravity. He came up with the
three laws of motion.
Petrarch-He was an early Renaissance humanist. He assembled a library of
Greek and Roman manuscripts.
Renaissance focus-The Renaissance focused mainly on art, religion, and literature.
There were many different artists during the Renaissance.
printing of reformation-The first to print
were the Chinese. Then Johann Gutenberg started it in Europe.
results of Reformation-
set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment. He published the Leviathan.
Locke- He set forth ideas
that were to become key to the Enlightenment. He published The Treatises of Government.
Joseph II-He was the
most radical enlightened despot. He had the nickname of the peasant emperor.
is a government whose power is defined and limited by law. It is made up of all acts of parliament.
despot-Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Joseph II was the most radical enlightened
natural laws-They were laws that governed human nature. These laws helped to solve problems.
natural rights-They were rights that belonged to all humans from birth. These rights included the
right to life, liberty, and property.
physiocrats-Thinkers that focused on economic reforms. They looked for
natural laws to define a rational economic system.
Bach-He was one of the towering musical figures of
the period. He wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs.
Diderot-He was a philosophe
who worked for 25 years to produce a 28-volume Encyclopedia. It included articles by leading thinkers of the day, including
Montesquieu and Voltaire.
Tom Paine-He published Common Sense. In this he echoed some themes from
Rousseau-He was the most controversial philosophe. He believed that people in their natural state
are basically good.
Robert Walpole-He was the able Whig leader from 1721 to 1742. He molded
the cabinet into a unified body, and he required all members to agree on major issues.
baroque-A grand and complex
style of art. Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement.
free market-It was the
natural forces of supply and demand. Adam Smith argued that the free market should be aloud to operate.
faire-It allowed business to operate with little or no government interference. This was a policy that was urged by physiocrats.
salon-It was an informal gathering at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged
ideas. It was originated in the 1600s.
social contract- An agreement by which they give up the state of nature
for an organized society. This was used to escape that Brutish Life.