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Ch 14
annul-annul means to cancel.  Henry VIII asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine.

gravity-Gravity was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton.  He said that it was the force that kept all of the planets in their orbits around the sun.

patron-a patron was a financial supporter of the arts.  Lorenzo was a well known patron.

perspective-rules that Renaissance artists learned.  It made distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer.

theocracy-was a government run by the church leaders.  The first theocracy was set up by Calvin.

John Calvin-Set up the first theocracy.  He taught that God was all powerful and that humans were by nature sinful.

Henry VIII-Led the final break with the Catholic Church.  He wanted to end papal control over the English church.

Leonardo da Vinci-He was one of the most brilliant painters of Florence.  He made sketches of flying machines and underwater boats before the first airplane or submarine was invented. 

Lorenzo de' Medici-He was the best known of the Medicis.  He was a generous patron and during difficult times help to hold Florence together.

Niccolo Machiavelli-He published The Prince in 1513.  In The Prince he talks about politics.

heliocentric-Heliocentric is a model of the universe in which the sun is the center.  Nicolaus Copernicus is the person who proposed this.

humanism-It was an intellectual movement in the heart of the Italian Renaissance.  Humanism focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that had occupied medieval thinkers.

indulgence-Indulgence was a pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime.  During the Middle Ages the church only granted indulgence for good deeds.

predestination-It was the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.  This idea was preached by Calvin.

recant-A recant is when someone gives up his or her views.  The Church tried to persuade Luther to recant his views but he refused.

Copernicus-He was the person who proposed a heliocentric universe.  He wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.

Durer-In 1494 he traveled to Italy to study the techniques of the Italian masters. 

Luther-Drew up a list of arguments against the indulgences that were known as his 95 theses.

Newton-He discovered gravity.  He came up with the three laws of motion.

Petrarch-He was an early Renaissance humanist.  He assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts.

Renaissance focus-The Renaissance focused mainly on art, religion, and literature.  There were many different artists during the Renaissance.

printing of reformation-The first to print were the Chinese.  Then Johann Gutenberg started it in Europe.

results of Reformation-

causes of Renaissance

 
Ch18

Hobbes-He set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment.  He published the Leviathan. 

Locke- He set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment.  He published The Treatises of Government.

Joseph II-He was the most radical enlightened despot.  He had the nickname of the peasant emperor.

constitional govt.-which is a government whose power is defined and limited by law.  It is made up of all acts of parliament. 

enlightened despot-Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.  Joseph II was the most radical enlightened despot.

natural laws-They were laws that governed human nature.  These laws helped to solve problems.

natural rights-They were rights that belonged to all humans from birth.  These rights included the right to life, liberty, and property.

physiocrats-Thinkers that focused on economic reforms.  They looked for natural laws to define a rational economic system.

Bach-He was one of the towering musical figures of the period.  He wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs.

Diderot-He was a philosophe who worked for 25 years to produce a 28-volume Encyclopedia.  It included articles by leading thinkers of the day, including Montesquieu and Voltaire.

Tom Paine-He published Common Sense.  In this he echoed some themes from the Enlightenment.

Rousseau-He was the most controversial philosophe.  He believed that people in their natural state are basically good.

Robert Walpole-He was the able Whig leader from 1721 to 1742.  He molded the cabinet into a unified body, and he required all members to agree on major issues.

baroque-A grand and complex style of art.  Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement.

free market-It was the natural forces of supply and demand.  Adam Smith argued that the free market should be aloud to operate.

laissez faire-It allowed business to operate with little or no government interference.  This was a policy that was urged by physiocrats. 

salon-It was an informal gathering at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas.  It was originated in the 1600s.

social contract- An agreement by which they give up the state of nature for an organized society. This was used to escape that Brutish Life.
 

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Mr. Haskels History