n the Industrial Revolution began, and for
people the rural way of life began to disappear.
c. still more stunning changes occurred in
century, creating our familiar world of skyscraper cities and carefully tended
2. A New Agricultural Revolution
a. the Industrial Revolution was made possible
part by a change in the farming fields of Western Europe.
b. the Dutch led the way in the new agricultural
revolution, and in the 1600s they built earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim
land from the sea.
c. rich landowners pushed ahead using enclosure,
which was the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by
3. The Population Explosion
a. in the 1700s Britain’s population
about five million to almost nine million in 1800.
b. the population of France rose from 18 million
1715 to 26 million in 1789.
c. the population boom was due to declining
rates more than rising birthrates.
4. An Energy Revolution
a. a third factor that contributed to the
Revolution was an “energy revolution”
b. in the 1700s, inventive minds found ways
water more efficiently.
c. in 1712 Thomas Newcomen had developed a
engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines.
5. Why Britain?
a. a large number of workers were needed to
coal and iron, build the factories, and run the machines.
b. Britain had been a center of the Scientific
Revolution, which had focused attention on the physical world and developed new
devices for managing it.
c. Britain had a stable government that supported
economic growth, it built a strong navy to protect its empire and overseas
6. The Age of Iron and Coal
a. new technologies in the iron industry were
the Industrial Revolution.
b. the Darby family of Coalbrookdale were
developing Britain’s iron industry.
c. in 1779, Abraham Darby III, made the world’s
first cast iron bridge.
7. Revolutionary Changes in the Textile Industry
a. in the 1600s cotton cloth imported from
become increasingly popular, then British merchants organized the putting out
b. among the inventions was John Kay’s
shuttle, Richard Arkwright invented the waterframe, using water power to speed
up spinning still farther.
c. spinners and weavers came each day to work
these first factories, which were places that brought together workers and
machines to produce large quantities of goods.
8. Revolution in Transportation
a. as factories sprang up and production increased,
entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to
b. some capitalists invested in turnpikes,
were privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them.
c. other inventors applied steam power to
shipping, Scottish builders mad the first paddle wheel steamboats to pull
barges along canals.
9. Looking Ahead
a. as the Industrial Revolution got under
triggered a chain reaction.
b. as the supply of goods increased, prices
and lower prices made goods more affordable and thus created more consumers.
c. the Industrial Revolution did more than
the way goods were made, but affected a people’s whole way of life.
10. The New Industrial City
a. the Industrial Revolution brought rapid
urbanization, or a movement of people to cities.
b. other cities grew up around the factories
entrepreneurs built in once-quiet market towns.
c. Cholera and other diseases spread rapidly.
11. The Factory System
a. the factory system differed greatly from
b. women made up much of the new industrial
force, but they were paid less than men.
c. factories and mines hired many boys and
parents were perfectly fine with child labor.
12. Patience Kershaw’s Life Underground
a. the horrors of child labor were slowly
the 1830s and 1840s, when British lawmakers looked into abuses in factories and
b. many women complained that they were beat
the men that they worked with.
c. in 1842 Parliament passed laws to regulate
employment of children in mines and factories.
13. The Working Class
a. in rural villages, farm families had ties
community where they had lived fro generations.
b. many working class people found comfort
in a new
religious movement called Methodism.
c. Methodist meetings featured hymns and sermons
promising forgiveness of sin and a better life to come.
14. The New Middle Class
a. those who benefited most from the Industrial
Revolution were the entrepreneurs.
b. middle-class families lived in solid,
c. the new middle class valued hard work and
determination to get ahead.
15. Benefits and Problems
a. reformers pressed for laws to improve working
b. despite the social problems created by
Industrial Revolution-low pay, unemployment, dismal living conditions, the
industrial age did bring material benefits.
c. industrialization continues to spread around
16. Laissez-Faire Economics
a. the prophet of laissez-faire economics
b. Thomas Malthus’s writings on population
economic thinking for generations.
c. another influential British economist,
agreed with Malthus that the poor had too many children.
17. The Utilitarians
a. by 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching
utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be the greatest
happiness for the greatest number.
b. Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart
argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong.
c. most middle-class people rejected Mill’s
18. Emergence of Socialism
a. to end poverty and injustice, socialism
offered as a radical solution.
b. socialism grew out of the Enlightenment
c. by the 1820s many people were visiting
to observe Owens’s reforms.
19. The “Scientific Socialism”
of Karl Marx
a. communism is a form of socialism that sees
struggle between employers and employees as inevitable.
b. the working class was also known as the
c. in the 1840s, Karl Marx, a German philosopher,
condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism.
Chapter 21 Outline
World History E-core
13 December 13, 2004
Chapter 21 Outline
1. Preserving the Old Order
a. The conservatives in 1815 had very different
goals from conservatives in the United States today, they wanted to turn back
the clock to the way things had been before 1789.
b. Conservatives also backed an established
church-Catholic in Austria and the southern European countries.
c. Conservatives leaders like Metternich opposed
freedom of the press, and they urged monarchs throughout Europe to suppress
revolutionary ideas and crush protests in their own countries.
2. The Liberal Challenge
a. Liberals wanted governments to be based
written constitutions and separation of powers.
b. The liberals of the early 1800s saw the
government as limited to protecting basic rights such as freedom of thought,
speech, and religion.
c. Later in the century would liberals throw
support behind the principle of universal manhood suffrage, which gave all
adult men the right to vote.
3. Nationalist Stirrings
a. For centuries, European rulers had won
lands in war.
b. The Balkans, in southeastern Europe, were
many ethnic groups, and in the early 1800s, several Balkan peoples rebelled
against the ottomans, who had ruled them from more than 300 years.
c. The Serbs eventually achieved autonomy,
self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire.
4. Challenges to the Old Order
a. Several challenges to the Vienna settlement
erupted in the 1820s, and revolts occurred along the southern fringe or Europe.
b. Metternich urged conservative rulers to
c. by the mid-1800s, social reformers and
were urging workers to support socialism or some other way of reorganizing
property ownership, further contributing to the unrest of this period.
5. France After the Restoration
a. when the Congress of Vienna restored Louis
to the French throne, and he issued a constitution, the Charter of French
b. when Louis XVIII died in 1824, his brother,
Charles X, inherited the throne.
c. the lower house of the French legislature
called the Chamber of Duties.
6. The French Revolution of 1848
a. in February 1848, when the government took
to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the
b. when elections for president were held,
overwhelming winner was Louis Napoleon, who was the nephew of Napoleon
c. Louis Napoleon used a plebiscite to win
approval for his seizure of power.
7. “Europe Catches Cold”
a. in both 1830 and 1848, the revolts in Paris
inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe.
b. in 1815, the Congress of Vienna had united
Austrian Netherlands and the Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch king.
c. in the late 1700s, Russia, Austria, and
had divided up Poland.
8. The Springtime of the Peoples
a. in 1848, revolts in Paris again unleased
wave of revolution across Europe.
b. revolution quickly spread to other parts
empire, in Budapest, Hungarian nationalists led by Louis Kossuth demanded an
c. in Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick
William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly, and
within a year he dissolved the assembly.
9. Looking Ahead
a. by 1850, the flickering light of rebellion
ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789.
b. in 1848, a growin gulf divided workers
radical economic change and liberal pursuing moderate political reform.
c. n the decades ahead, liberalism, nationalism,
socialism would win successes not through revolution but through political
10. Climate of Discontent
a. by the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever
gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America.
b. Native Americans suffered economic misery
the Spanish, who had conquered the lands of their ancestors.
c. in the 1700s, educated creoles read the
Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.
11. Haiti’s Struggle
a. even before Spanish colonists hoisted the
freedom, revolution had erupted elsewhere in Latin America, in a French-ruled
colony on the island of Hispaniola.
b. many slaves were cruelly overworked and
c. under the able leadership of Toussaint
L’Ouverture, Haitians would fight for freedom and pave the way for throwing off
12. Toussaint L’Ouverture
a. Toussaint L’Ouverture was born into
b. although untrained, Toussaint was a brilliant
general, and was also an inspiring commander.
c. in 1798, Toussaint had reached his goal
the Haitian slaves freed.
13. A Call to Freedom in Mexico
a. the slave revolt in Haiti frightened creoles
b. in Spain in 1820, liberals forced the king
issue a constitution.
c. although Mexico was free of Spanish rule,
lives of most people changed little.
14. New Republics in Central America
a. Spanish-ruled lands in Central America
independence in the early 1820s.
b. the union was sort-lived, and it soon fragmented
into the separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and
c. like Mexico, the new nations faced many
and economic problems.
15. Revolutions in South America
a. in South America, Native Americans had
against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s.
b. in the early 1800s, widespread discontent
to surface among other South Americans.
c. San Martin was a creole who was born in
and in 1816 was helped Argentina win freedom from Spain.
16. Independence for Brazil
a. no revolutions or military campaigns were
to win independence for Brazil.
b. in 1822, Dom Pedro followed his father’s
and became emperor of an independent Brazil.
c. Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889,
social and political turmoil led it to become a republic