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n the Industrial Revolution began, and for many people the rural way of life began to disappear.

c. still more stunning changes occurred in the next century, creating our familiar world of skyscraper cities and carefully tended suburbs.

2. A New Agricultural Revolution

a. the Industrial Revolution was made possible in part by a change in the farming fields of Western Europe.

b. the Dutch led the way in the new agricultural revolution, and in the 1600s they built earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim land from the sea.

c. rich landowners pushed ahead using enclosure, which was the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers.

3. The Population Explosion

a. in the 1700s Britain’s population soared from about five million to almost nine million in 1800.

b. the population of France rose from 18 million in 1715 to 26 million in 1789.

c. the population boom was due to declining death rates more than rising birthrates.

4. An Energy Revolution

a. a third factor that contributed to the Industrial Revolution was an “energy revolution”

b. in the 1700s, inventive minds found ways to use water more efficiently.

c. in 1712 Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines.

5. Why Britain?

a. a large number of workers were needed to mine the coal and iron, build the factories, and run the machines.

b. Britain had been a center of the Scientific Revolution, which had focused attention on the physical world and developed new devices for managing it.

c. Britain had a stable government that supported economic growth, it built a strong navy to protect its empire and overseas trade.

6. The Age of Iron and Coal

a. new technologies in the iron industry were key to the Industrial Revolution.

b. the Darby family of Coalbrookdale were leaders in developing Britain’s iron industry.

c. in 1779, Abraham Darby III, made the world’s first cast iron bridge.

7. Revolutionary Changes in the Textile Industry

a. in the 1600s cotton cloth imported from India had become increasingly popular, then British merchants organized the putting out system.

b. among the inventions was John Kay’s flying shuttle, Richard Arkwright invented the waterframe, using water power to speed up spinning still farther.

c. spinners and weavers came each day to work in these first factories, which were places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods.

8. Revolution in Transportation

a. as factories sprang up and production increased, entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to place.

b. some capitalists invested in turnpikes, which were privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them.

c. other inventors applied steam power to improve shipping, Scottish builders mad the first paddle wheel steamboats to pull barges along canals.

9. Looking Ahead

a. as the Industrial Revolution got under way, it triggered a chain reaction.

b. as the supply of goods increased, prices fell, and lower prices made goods more affordable and thus created more consumers.

c. the Industrial Revolution did more than change the way goods were made, but affected a people’s whole way of life.

10. The New Industrial City

a. the Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization, or a movement of people to cities.

b. other cities grew up around the factories that entrepreneurs built in once-quiet market towns.

c. Cholera and other diseases spread rapidly.

11. The Factory System

a. the factory system differed greatly from farmwork.

b. women made up much of the new industrial work force, but they were paid less than men.

c. factories and mines hired many boys and girls, parents were perfectly fine with child labor.

12. Patience Kershaw’s Life Underground

a. the horrors of child labor were slowly exposed in the 1830s and 1840s, when British lawmakers looked into abuses in factories and mines.

b. many women complained that they were beat up by the men that they worked with.

c. in 1842 Parliament passed laws to regulate the employment of children in mines and factories.

13. The Working Class

a. in rural villages, farm families had ties to a community where they had lived fro generations.

b. many working class people found comfort in a new religious movement called Methodism.

c. Methodist meetings featured hymns and sermons promising forgiveness of sin and a better life to come.

14. The New Middle Class

a. those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were the entrepreneurs.

b. middle-class families lived in solid, well-furnished homes.

c. the new middle class valued hard work and determination to get ahead.

15. Benefits and Problems

a. reformers pressed for laws to improve working conditions.

b. despite the social problems created by the Industrial Revolution-low pay, unemployment, dismal living conditions, the industrial age did bring material benefits.

c. industrialization continues to spread around the world today.

16. Laissez-Faire Economics

a. the prophet of laissez-faire economics was Adam Smith.

b. Thomas Malthus’s writings on population shaped economic thinking for generations.

c. another influential British economist, David Ricardo, agreed with Malthus that the poor had too many children. 

17. The Utilitarians

a. by 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number.

b. Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill also argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong.

c. most middle-class people rejected Mill’s ideas.

18. Emergence of Socialism

a. to end poverty and injustice, socialism was offered as a radical solution.

b. socialism grew out of the Enlightenment faith in progress.

c. by the 1820s many people were visiting New Lanark to observe Owens’s reforms.

19. The “Scientific Socialism” of Karl Marx

a. communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable.

b. the working class was also known as the proletariat.

c. in the 1840s, Karl Marx, a German philosopher, condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism. 


Chapter 21 Outline

Justin Maier

Mr. Haskell

World History E-core

13 December 13, 2004


Chapter 21 Outline


1. Preserving the Old Order

a. The conservatives in 1815 had very different goals from conservatives in the United States today, they wanted to turn back the clock to the way things had been before 1789.

b. Conservatives also backed an established church-Catholic in Austria and the southern European countries.

c. Conservatives leaders like Metternich opposed freedom of the press, and they urged monarchs throughout Europe to suppress revolutionary ideas and crush protests in their own countries.

2. The Liberal Challenge

a. Liberals wanted governments to be based on written constitutions and separation of powers.

b. The liberals of the early 1800s saw the role of government as limited to protecting basic rights such as freedom of thought, speech, and religion.

c. Later in the century would liberals throw their support behind the principle of universal manhood suffrage, which gave all adult men the right to vote.

3. Nationalist Stirrings

a. For centuries, European rulers had won or lost lands in war.

b. The Balkans, in southeastern Europe, were home to many ethnic groups, and in the early 1800s, several Balkan peoples rebelled against the ottomans, who had ruled them from more than 300 years.

c. The Serbs eventually achieved autonomy, or self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire.

4. Challenges to the Old Order

a. Several challenges to the Vienna settlement erupted in the 1820s, and revolts occurred along the southern fringe or Europe.

b. Metternich urged conservative rulers to crush the uprisings.

c. by the mid-1800s, social reformers and agitators were urging workers to support socialism or some other way of reorganizing property ownership, further contributing to the unrest of this period.

5. France After the Restoration

a. when the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, and he issued a constitution, the Charter of French Liberties.

b. when Louis XVIII died in 1824, his brother, Charles X, inherited the throne.

c. the lower house of the French legislature was called the Chamber of Duties.

6. The French Revolution of 1848

a. in February 1848, when the government took steps to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the streets.

b. when elections for president were held, the overwhelming winner was Louis Napoleon, who was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.

c. Louis Napoleon used a plebiscite to win public approval for his seizure of power.

7. “Europe Catches Cold”

a. in both 1830 and 1848, the revolts in Paris inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe.

b. in 1815, the Congress of Vienna had united the Austrian Netherlands and the Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch king.

c. in the late 1700s, Russia, Austria, and Prussia had divided up Poland.

8. The Springtime of the Peoples

a. in 1848, revolts in Paris again unleased a tidal wave of revolution across Europe.

b. revolution quickly spread to other parts of the empire, in Budapest, Hungarian nationalists led by Louis Kossuth demanded an independent government.

c. in Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly, and within a year he dissolved the assembly.

9. Looking Ahead

a. by 1850, the flickering light of rebellion faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789.

b. in 1848, a growin gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberal pursuing moderate political reform.

c. n the decades ahead, liberalism, nationalism, and socialism would win successes not through revolution but through political activity.

10. Climate of Discontent

a. by the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America.

b. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish, who had conquered the lands of their ancestors.

c. in the 1700s, educated creoles read the works of Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.

11. Haiti’s Struggle

a. even before Spanish colonists hoisted the flag of freedom, revolution had erupted elsewhere in Latin America, in a French-ruled colony on the island of Hispaniola.

b. many slaves were cruelly overworked and underfed.

c. under the able leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Haitians would fight for freedom and pave the way for throwing off French rule.

12. Toussaint L’Ouverture

a. Toussaint L’Ouverture was born into slavery in Haiti.

b. although untrained, Toussaint was a brilliant general, and was also an inspiring commander.

c. in 1798, Toussaint had reached his goal of having the Haitian slaves freed.

13. A Call to Freedom in Mexico

a. the slave revolt in Haiti frightened creoles in Spanish America.

b. in Spain in 1820, liberals forced the king to issue a constitution.

c. although Mexico was free of Spanish rule, the lives of most people changed little.

14. New Republics in Central America

a. Spanish-ruled lands in Central America declared independence in the early 1820s.

b. the union was sort-lived, and it soon fragmented into the separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. 

c. like Mexico, the new nations faced many social and economic problems.

15. Revolutions in South  America

a. in South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s.

b. in the early 1800s, widespread discontent began to surface among other South Americans.

c. San Martin was a creole who was born in Argentina and in 1816 was helped Argentina win freedom from Spain.

16. Independence for Brazil

a. no revolutions or military campaigns were needed to win independence for Brazil.

b. in 1822, Dom Pedro followed his father’s advice, and became emperor of an independent Brazil.

c. Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889, when social and political turmoil led it to become a republic




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Mr. Haskels History