Industrial Revolution Study Guide
Ch. 20, 21, and 22
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related
to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an
example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures
that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to
double space between terms for easier viewing).
Enclosure- Enclosure is the process of taking over and
fencing off the land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s rich
landowners had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and increased wool
factories (How they worked)- These places
brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods.
Spinners and weavers came each day to work at huge establishments named
Turnpike- Privately built roads that charged a fee to
travelers who used them. In 1700s individuals made improvements in local
systems of transportation in which some capitalists invested in turnpikes.
Urbanization- Is a movement of people to other cities.
The industrial revolution brought rapid industrialization.
Utilitarianism- Was the idea that the goal of society
should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens.
Jeremy Bentham preached utilitarianism and in is mind laws or actions should be
judged by their “utility”.
Socialism- The people as a whole rather than private
individuals would own and operate the “means of production”. To end poverty and
injustice they offered a radical solution called socialism.
Communism- Form of socialism that sees class struggle
between employers and employees as inevitable. Karl Marx condemned the
ideas of the utopian as an unrealistic idealism and created communism.
Proletariat- They are the working class. The
proletariats are the working class or they are also called the “have nots”.
Michael Faraday- Created the electric generator that
worked by rotating a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet which was
called the dynamo. He paved the way for other inventors to find ways to use
electric power to run machines.
John Wesley- In the mid-1700s he had been the leader
of a religious revival and founded the Methodist Church. He urged Christians to
improve their lot by adopting sober, moral ways of life.
Karl Marx- he condemned the ideas of the Utopians as
unrealistic idealism and he put forth a new theory “scientific socialism” which
he claimed was based on a scientific study of history. He despised
capitalism and believed it created prosperity for a few and poverty for
Thomas Malthus- predicated the population would
outpace the food supply. He said that as long as population increases, the poor
would suffer and he urged families to have fewer children.
John Stuart Mill- He argued that actions are right as
long as if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain. He wanted the
government to give the right to vote to men and women workers in which he said
then these groups could use their political power to win reforms.
James Watt- In 1769 he improved on Newcomen’s engine.
Watt’s steam engines would become the vital power source of the early
Abraham Darby- He began using coal instead of wood for
smelting iron which was separating iron from its ore. Darby found a way to
remove the impurities from coal.
David Ricardo- He wrote “iron law of wages’ in which
he noted that when wages were high families had more children. He knew that
there was no way for the working class to escape poverty.
Jeremy Bentham- He preached utilitarianism in which he
thought laws or actions should be judged by their “utility”. He strongly
supported individual freedom in which he believed ensured happiness.
Robert Owen-He was a self made industrialist who
refused to use child labor for his way of making things. He campaigned
vigorously for child labor laws and labor unions.
Britain's population growth (why did it
happen?)- Better crops were being made which allowed the population to
rise instead of the population decreasing because of famine. They also had
better hygiene and better medical practices which also contributed to the
Importance of coal to Industrialization- Coal was used
to power basically everything during that age from transportation to factories.
Coal was also one of the reasons why inventors made better steam engines so
that coal would be used more effectively as an energy source.
Agricultural Revolution- meant that there was less
famine and more crops for the people. With the industrial revolution the better
crops could be shipped and transported to other parts of the country.
textile industry- Factories had machines that spun,
sewed, and wove cotton together to make a lot of clothes. The new inventions
helped factories produce more textiles.
laissez faire economics (Adam Smith)- He believed that
a free market would be good for everyone and he is called the prophet of
laissez faire. The free market to him would produce items for less value which
would help everyone.
Ideology- Thought and belief in someone or something.
The clash of people with opposing ideologies plunged Europe into a period of
turmoil that lasted more than 30 years.
universal manhood suffrage- Gave all adult men the
right to vote. Later in the century liberals threw their support behind the
principle of universal manhood suffrage.
Autonomy- Anatomy is self-rule. The first Balkan
people achieved autonomy within the Ottoman empire.
el Grito de Dolores- Is the speech that Father Hidalgo
said which means the cry of Dolores. It called the people of Mexico to fight
for “Independence and Liberty”.
February Days- Iron railings, overturned carts, paving
stones and toppled trees blocked the streets of Paris
Frankfurt Assembly- Is where delegates from German
states met at throughout 1848. Liberals clashed with workers whose demands were
too radical for middle-class reformers to accept.
Simon Bolivar- Led an uprising that established a republic
in his native Venezuela in 1810. He was called “the liberator” before he joined
forces with Jose de San martin.
Miguel Hidalgo- o the m0orning of September 16,1810 he
rang the church bells summoning the people to prayer. He said the el Grito de Dolores
Louis Kossuth- He led Hungarian nationalists in
Budapest and he demanded an independent government
Tupac Amaru- In 1780 he organized a revolt in which a
large army crushed the rebels and
captured and killed their leader.
Louis XVIII- he prudently issued a constitution, the
Charter of French Liberties creating a two- house legislature and allowed
limited freedom of the press.
John Stuart Mill- Chief follower of Bentham who argued
that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain
Toussaint L' Ouverture- Was born into slavery in Haiti
and achieved his goal in which enslaved Haitians were freed. He ended up dieing
in a cold mountain prison and with his death Haitian struggle for freedom
Louis Napoleon- Used a plebiscite to win public
approval for his seizure of power. A stunning 90 percent of voters supported
his move to set up the Second Empire.
Louis Philippe- Was called the “citizen king” because
he owed his throne to the people. He extended suffrage and under his rule the
upper bourgeoisie prospered.
Clemens Von Metternich- Opposed the freedom of the
press and urged monarchs throughout Europe to suppress revolutionary ideas and
crush protests in their own countries.
Pedro- Brazilian king’s son, Dom Pedro was left to
rule Brazil. He then became Emperor of independent Brazil.
Revolts in Austrian empire- In 1830, revolutions in
France sparked uprisings throughout Europe. Most Rebellions were quickly
goals of nationalists- The nationalists’ goals were
linked to the demand for liberal reforms. One of the things they fought for was
a constitutional government.
conservative ideology in Europe- The period of
turmoil that Europe went into was because of the clash of ideologies that
people possessed. This turmoil lasted for more than thirty years.
Interchangeable parts- Identical components that could
be used in place of one another.
Interchangeable parts simplified both assembly and
assembly line- Workers on the assembly line add parts
to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next. The
assembly line made production faster and cheaper.
Corporation- Businesses that are owned by many
investors who buy shares of stock. Stockholders risk only the amount they
invest in the company and cannot be held personally responsible for any debts
of the corporations.
Cartel- Is an association that fixes prices. Cartels
set production quotas or divided up markets.
women's suffrage- means votes for women. In Europe
groups dedicated to women suffrage emerged in the later 1800s.
racism- Is the belief that one racial group is
superior to another. Social Darwinism encouraged racism which was the belief
that one racial group is superior to another.
social gospel- Was a movement that urged Christians to
social service. Protestant Churches backed social gospels and they campaigned
for reforms in housing, health care, and education.
Romanticism- Shaped western literature and arts from
about 1750 to 1850. Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against
the Enlightenment emphasis on reason.
Realism- Was an attempt to represent the world as it
was, without sentiment associated with romanticism. Realists often looked at
the harsher side of life in cities or villages.
Impressionism- A way of painting which an artist
wanted to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on
the viewer’s eye. This took root in Paris which was the capital of the western
Social Darwinism- Applied the idea of survival of the
fittest to war and economic competition. Industrial tycoons argued social
Darwinists earned success because they were more “fit” than those they put out
Darwin- Charles Darwin published On the Origin of
Species in which he argued that all forms of life evolved into their present
state over millions of years. He explained his ideas through the theory of
Joseph Lister- Discovered how antiseptics prevented
infections. He insisted that surgeons was their hands before operating and
sterilize their instruments.
life ( How it changed the lives of workers)- The coal mines affected the health
lives of workers where they got the black lung and other health affects. The
workers did help food