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Danny Kelchner


Janurary 5 2005



Industrial Revolution Study Guide

Ch. 20, 21, and 22

Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).


Ch. 20

Enclosure- Enclosure is the process of taking over and fencing off the land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s rich landowners had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and increased wool output.



factories (How they worked)-  These places brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Spinners and weavers came each day to work at huge establishments named factories.



Turnpike- Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them. In 1700s individuals made improvements in local systems of transportation in which some capitalists invested in turnpikes.



Urbanization- Is a movement of people to other cities. The industrial revolution brought rapid industrialization.



Utilitarianism- Was the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens. Jeremy Bentham preached utilitarianism and in is mind laws or actions should be judged by their “utility”.



Socialism- The people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the “means of production”. To end poverty and injustice they offered a radical solution called socialism.



Communism- Form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable.  Karl Marx condemned the ideas of the utopian as an unrealistic idealism and created communism.



Proletariat- They are the working class. The proletariats are the working class or they are also called the “have nots”.



Michael Faraday- Created the electric generator that worked by rotating a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet which was called the dynamo. He paved the way for other inventors to find ways to use electric power to run machines.



John Wesley- In the mid-1700s he had been the leader of a religious revival and founded the Methodist Church. He urged Christians to improve their lot by adopting sober, moral ways of life.



Karl Marx- he condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism and he put forth a new theory “scientific socialism” which he claimed was based on a scientific study of history.  He despised capitalism and believed it created prosperity for a few and poverty for many. 



Thomas Malthus- predicated the population would outpace the food supply. He said that as long as population increases, the poor would suffer and he urged families to have fewer children. 



John Stuart Mill- He argued that actions are right as long as if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain. He wanted the government to give the right to vote to men and women workers in which he said then these groups could use their political power to win reforms.



James Watt- In 1769 he improved on Newcomen’s engine. Watt’s steam engines would become the vital power source of the early industrial revolution.

Abraham Darby- He began using coal instead of wood for smelting iron which was separating iron from its ore. Darby found a way to remove the impurities from coal. 



David Ricardo- He wrote “iron law of wages’ in which he noted that when wages were high families had more children. He knew that there was no way for the working class to escape poverty.



Jeremy Bentham- He preached utilitarianism in which he thought laws or actions should be judged by their “utility”. He strongly supported individual freedom in which he believed ensured happiness.



Robert Owen-He was a self made industrialist who refused to use child labor for his way of making things. He campaigned vigorously for child labor laws and labor unions.



Britain's population growth (why did it happen?)-  Better crops were being made which allowed the population to rise instead of the population decreasing because of famine. They also had better hygiene and better medical practices which also contributed to the population rising.



Importance of coal to Industrialization- Coal was used to power basically everything during that age from transportation to factories. Coal was also one of the reasons why inventors made better steam engines so that coal would be used more effectively as an energy source.



Agricultural Revolution- meant that there was less famine and more crops for the people. With the industrial revolution the better crops could be shipped and transported to other parts of the country.



textile industry- Factories had machines that spun, sewed, and wove cotton together to make a lot of clothes. The new inventions helped factories produce more textiles.



laissez faire economics (Adam Smith)- He believed that a free market would be good for everyone and he is called the prophet of laissez faire. The free market to him would produce items for less value which would help everyone.


Ch. 21

Ideology- Thought and belief in someone or something. The clash of people with opposing ideologies plunged Europe into a period of turmoil that lasted more than 30 years.



universal manhood suffrage- Gave all adult men the right to vote. Later in the century liberals threw their support behind the principle of universal manhood suffrage.



Autonomy- Anatomy is self-rule. The first Balkan people achieved autonomy within the Ottoman empire.



el Grito de Dolores- Is the speech that Father Hidalgo said which means the cry of Dolores. It called the people of Mexico to fight for “Independence and Liberty”.



February Days- Iron railings, overturned carts, paving stones and toppled trees blocked the streets of Paris



Frankfurt Assembly- Is where delegates from German states met at throughout 1848. Liberals clashed with workers whose demands were too radical for middle-class reformers to accept.



Simon Bolivar- Led an uprising that established a republic in his native Venezuela in 1810. He was called “the liberator” before he joined forces with Jose de San martin.



Miguel Hidalgo- o the m0orning of September 16,1810 he rang the church bells summoning the people to prayer. He said the el Grito de Dolores speech.



Louis Kossuth-  He led Hungarian nationalists in Budapest and he demanded an independent government



Tupac Amaru- In 1780 he organized a revolt in which a large army crushed the rebels and

captured and killed their leader. 



Louis XVIII- he prudently issued a constitution, the Charter of French Liberties creating a two- house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press.



John Stuart Mill- Chief follower of Bentham who argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain



Toussaint L' Ouverture- Was born into slavery in Haiti and achieved his goal in which enslaved Haitians were freed. He ended up dieing in a cold mountain prison and with his death Haitian struggle for freedom continued.



Louis Napoleon- Used a plebiscite to win public approval for his seizure of power. A stunning 90 percent of voters supported his move to set up the Second Empire.



Louis Philippe- Was called the “citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people. He extended suffrage and under his rule the upper bourgeoisie prospered.



Clemens Von Metternich- Opposed the freedom of the press and urged monarchs throughout Europe to suppress revolutionary ideas and crush protests in their own countries.



Pedro- Brazilian king’s son, Dom Pedro was left to rule Brazil. He then became Emperor of independent Brazil. 



Revolts in Austrian empire- In 1830, revolutions in France sparked uprisings throughout Europe. Most Rebellions were quickly crushed. 



goals of nationalists- The nationalists’ goals were linked to the demand for liberal reforms. One of the things they fought for was a constitutional government.



conservative ideology in Europe-  The period of turmoil that Europe went into was because of the clash of ideologies that people possessed. This turmoil lasted for more than thirty years.


Ch. 22

Interchangeable parts- Identical components that could be used in place of one another.

Interchangeable parts simplified both assembly and repair.



assembly line- Workers on the assembly line add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next. The assembly line made production faster and cheaper.



Corporation- Businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. Stockholders risk only the amount they invest in the company and cannot be held personally responsible for any debts of the corporations.



Cartel- Is an association that fixes prices. Cartels set production quotas or divided up markets.



women's suffrage- means votes for women. In Europe groups dedicated to women suffrage emerged in the later 1800s.



racism- Is the belief that one racial group is superior to another. Social Darwinism encouraged racism which was the belief that one racial group is superior to another.



social gospel- Was a movement that urged Christians to social service. Protestant Churches backed social gospels and they campaigned for reforms in housing, health care, and education.



Romanticism- Shaped western literature and arts from about 1750 to 1850. Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason.



Realism- Was an attempt to represent the world as it was, without sentiment associated with romanticism. Realists often looked at the harsher side of life in cities or villages. 



Impressionism- A way of painting which an artist wanted to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on the viewer’s eye. This took root in Paris which was the capital of the western world.



Social Darwinism- Applied the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition. Industrial tycoons argued social Darwinists earned success because they were more “fit” than those they put out of business.



Darwin- Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in which he argued that all forms of life evolved into their present state over millions of years. He explained his ideas through the theory of natural selection.



Joseph Lister- Discovered how antiseptics prevented infections. He insisted that surgeons was their hands before operating and sterilize their instruments.



factory life ( How it changed the lives of workers)- The coal mines affected the health lives of workers where they got the black lung and other health affects. The workers did help food  

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Mr. Haskels History