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World History Semester #1 Final Study Guide
Mr. Haskell
1.*National debt- The total financial obligations of a national government as distinguished from the debts of individuals and businesses and political subdivisions.
2.*AIDS- A severe immunological disorder caused by the retrovirus HIV
3.cause- It is transmitted primarily by exposure to contaminated body fluids, especially blood and semen.
4.affect- resulting in a defect in cell-mediated immune response that is manifested by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and to certain rare cancers, especially Kaposi's sarcomav
5. North Ireland – Invasions and wars have occurred all throughout the history of Ireland. Today, North Ireland is divided into two sections; the Catholics who want to reunify Ireland, and the Protestants who don't.
6. IRA- An investment account in which a person can set aside income up to a specified amount each year and usually deduct the contributions from taxable income, with the contributions and interest being tax-deferred until retirement.
7. The Problem Defined – In 1921, England divided Ireland into two parts. The north remained English, and the south became a "free state." Because of this, there is a division between religion and economy.

8.*Oligarchy - government in which ruling power belongs to a few people. The Spartan government had two kings.
9.*Democracy – government in which the people hold ruling power. Athens had a form of democracy in which all the citizens could vote on actions to take.
10.*Geography of Greece – Greece is surrounded by Mountains and Rivers. The people build farms and cities on the valleys in between mountains.
11.*Greek theater – They started out as religious festivals to honor Dionysus, the god of fertility and wine.  It then moved into tragedies in order to excite emotions of pity and fear.
12.*Alexander's greatest achievement – Alexander the Great expanded Rome which allowed soldiers, traders, and artisans to settle in them.  He also blended the eastern and western cultures to unite Rome.
13. *Center of the Hellenistic world- where? – The Hellenistic world had temples, palaces, and other public buildings.  These buildings were much larger and grander than the buildings of classical Greed.
14.*Pericles – An athenian statesmen who read the “Funeral Oration” to rise the hopes of the people and to prove that Athens was indeed the strongest state in the world. He was elected to Athenian senant for life.
15.*Darius – King Darius of Persia was the one who sent messengers to all the Greek States demanding gifts of “earth and water” as a symbol of surrender.  Athens and Sparta were the only ones who refused to give him a gift.
16.*Alexander - Alexander the Great conquered Persia, India, Greece, and Egypt. He started his rule when he was only twenty years old.
17.*Athen's golden age - The time of Pericles’ rule. It was after the Persian Wars when Athens went through its golden age.
18.*Spartan boys - Boys began training at the age of seven. The rest of their life was spent in the military.
19.*Persian Wars – After the final war with Persia, Athens arose the most-powerful city-state.  It formed the Delian League, and forced other city-states to join it, for their own safety.  Athens had the treasury moved from the island of Delos to Athens.
20.*Trojan Wars - The Trojan war was held in the city of Toy, which is present day Turkey. It was near the straits that connect the Mediterranean and the Black seas.
21.*Peloponnesian War - Sparta lead a war against Athens and won. All the city-states went into war while Macedonia was being formed.
22.*Paul - played a major role in spreading Christianity. Was against Christians at first but hen he had a vision that changed his life.
23.*Hannibal - Hannibal dedicated his life to the destruction of Rome. As the general of the Carthaginian army he tried to destroy Rome.
24.*Virgil – Poet that tried to make Rome ’s past as interesting and as heroic as the past of Greece.  Virgil wrote Aeneid right after Augustus came into power.  Virgil hoped his poetry would unite Rome together and help to boost nationalism after years of civil war.
25.*Augustus - means Exalted One. He helped Rome recover from the long period of civil war after Caesar’s death.
26.*Odoacer – Odoacer, a Germanic leader, which finally overthrew the Roman emperor in 476.  Although this was not the straw that broke the camel’s back it was indeed the end of Rome ’s expansion, from now on out this period was considered the “fall” of the Roman Empire.
27.*Jesus - A Jew that founded Christianity. Believed by many to be the Son of God.
28.*Constantine – In 312 Constantine gained throne as emperor.  He made two great changes 1. Tolerated Christians.  2. Built a new capitol Constantinople.
29.*Ptolemy – A Greek mathematician-astronomer who proposed that the earth was the center of the universe and that all things revolved around it.  This theory of earth was accepted for 1,500 years in the Western World until it was eventually proven wrong.
30.*Copernicus – He was a polish scholar who wrote the book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.  He also was the first to come up with the idea of Heliocentric, or that the sun was the center of the universe and that the earth revolved around it.
31.*Virgil – Poet that tried to make Rome ’s past as interesting and as heroic as the past of Greece.  Virgil wrote Aeneid right after Augustus came into power.  Virgil hoped his poetry would unite Rome together and help to boost nationalism after years of civil war.
32.*Roman landholding upper class – Patricians. All 300 members of the early senate were patricians.
33.*Martyr - person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs. One martyr was Paul, who died for Christianity.
34.*Messiah - savior sent by God. Many believe the Messiah was Jesus Christ.
35.*Mercenary - soldier serving in a foreign army for pay. The Romans hired mercenaries to fight against the Germans.
36.*Totalitarian – A government in which a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives.
37.*Communist – A believer in the form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which the community as a whole would own all wealth and property.
38*Republic - system of government in which the people choose officials. Romans thought that a republic would keep any individual from gaining too much power.
39.*Basic unit of the Roman army – a Legion. A legion was made up of about 5,000 soldiers.


40.*Peasants - Most peasants on the manors were serfs. The peasants were tied to their lords by mutual rights and responsibilities.
41.*Knights - Noble in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the Middle Ages.
42.*Fief – In the Middle Ages, an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty. Estates ranged from a few acres to hundreds of square miles and included peasants to work the land.
43.*Serf – In medieval Europe, peasant bound to the lord’s land. Many serfs never got to see the world outside their lord’s land.
44. *Vassal – Lesser lords that pledged loyalty to higher lords. The vassals had to pay taxes and allegiance in exchange for land.
45.*Lord - Lords ruled over many people including vassals, lesser lords, knights, and peasants.  The Nobles, born of pure blood, only outranked them.
46.*Charter - In the Middle Ages, a written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town. In return for the charter, lords paid the king a large sum of money or a yearly fee or both.
47.*bill of rights- this was a bill that listed all of the rights of a man. The bill of rights created after the American revolution stated that Americans had rights such as trial by jury and freedom of speech.

48. *Church reform, Why? – Church reform was desired because the church started to lack discipline. The church began to become corrupt due to its growth in power and strength.
49.*Most important economic activity in medieval town – Trade was the most important activity in a medieval town.  They traded foods such as fruits and vegetables for chickens, etc.
50. *Lending money at interest – Lending money at interest was called usury. To the clergy, the profits that merchants and bankers made from usury were immoral.
51. *Battle of Tours – 732.  It was between Frankish warriors led by Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army.  After the Muslims defeat Christians saw this battle a sign that god was on their side.
52.*Causes that united Charlemagne's empire – Charlemagne brought literature back to Europe. His empire was great but fell apart after he died because nobody was as strong a ruler as he.
53. *Cluniac reforms - Cluniac reforms rid the church of much corruption. They prohibited the selling of Church positions and of priests having wifes.
54. *Three-field system – The three field system is where peasants planted a field of grain, another with legumes, and a third with the left fallow.  This allowed them to produce more food
55. *Clergy – The clergy despised a new middle class.  They also thought that towns were a disruptive influence beyond their control.
56. *Merchant guilds - Merchant guilds dominated the life in the towns. Apprentices trained for seven years and the only pay they received was bed and board.
57.*Nobles – Nobles were the upper class in ancient medieval society.  They consisted of less than 1% of the total population.  They were in charge of the overseeing of lesser lords and vassals.
58. *Magna Carta –importance – In 1215, a group of rebellious barons cornered John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta was important because it limited the rights of the government to make sure it wasn't abusing its power for the wrong reasons.
59.*Concordat of Worms – The agreement that the church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority. The emperor had the right to invest him with fiefs.
60.*Goal of the Crusades – the goal of the Crusades was to take back the holy land from the Turks. Christian knights, called Crusaders, marched, fought, and occupied parts of Palestine for 200 years.
61. *Viking name for Lightning warfare –Berserker warfare was the Vikings name for lightning warfare.
62. *Result of plague in Europe – Cairo was where the Black Death was most devastating. About 7,000 people died a day. The populations throughout the world were decreasing very rapidly.
63. *Reconquista - The campaign to drive Muslims from Spanish land. Isabella set up a heresy once she became ruler. More than 150,000 people fled into exile.
64. *Result of the Crusades – The crusades increased a money economy, trade in Europe and crusades also increased papal power. Feudal monarchs’ power were increased because of crusades.
65. *Early jury system- when? – In around 1154, an educated King Henry II came to power.  He had officials choose a jury, or men sworn to speak the truth.  These jury members determined which cases should be brought to trial and which others could be settled outside of court.
66.Cause of Germany’s disunity- Germany was not united due to the dominance of Charlemagne's Frankish empire. It simply wasn't strong enough to stay unified during this time.

67. *Development of printing- effects – The age of printing helped the Renaissance greatly.  Books were now cheaper and easier to make than ever meaning that the middle class now had a chance to become educated.  This education led the people to question the real authority of the church.
68. *Copernicus – He revolutionized the way people viewed the universe. The Enlightenment grew out of the Scientific Revolution that started with thinkers like him.
69. *Newton – Newton discovered gravity. He proved that gravity is what holds the planets in their orbits around the sun.
70. *Causes of the Renaissance – ally was the center of Ancient Rome. The Renaissance started there because of the ancient architectural remains, antique statues, coins, and inscriptions.
71. *Luther – He posted 95 theses on the church in Wittenberg, Germany on why the Church should be reformed and because of this he was excommunicated. He was a German Monk who started church reform.
72. *Scientific method – Complex mathematical calculations were used to convert the observations and experiments into scientific laws. In time, this approach became known as the scientific method.
73.*Calvin – He preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation, and also set up a theocracy. He lead the city state of Geneva in Switzerland.
74. *Erasmus- Dutch Renaissance scholar and Roman Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical texts from antiquity, restore simple Christian faith based on Scripture, and eradicate the improprieties of the medieval Church

75. *Montesquieu published the spirit of the laws. He studied governments of Europe and read about ancient medieval times he had criticisms about the absolute monarchy.
76. *Cause of Britain's global power/ 1700s- This power was because of all of the advanced technology that Britain had. They easily conquered all of the other countries because of the weapons mostly.
77. *Adam Smith –  Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations,  where he argued that the free market, the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. His ideas would spread throughout Europe.
78. *John Locke – Locke was more optimistic then Hobbes. He believed that people were naturally good, and had natural rights.
79. *Thomas Hobbes – He said that people were naturally crude, greedy and selfish. He said that people entered a social contract or an agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society.

80. *"No taxation without representation"- American colonists bitterly resent what they saw as an attack on their rights after British parliament passed new tax laws. “No taxation without representation was the cry of the American colonists.

81. *Age of Reason- The Enlightenment is also known as the "Age of Reason." In which the enlightenment was the product of the scientific revolution in the 1500s and 1600s.

82. *Joseph II an emperor. He traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn about their problems. His efforts to improve their lives won him the nickname “peasant emperor” Joseph continued the reforms that his mother had started. He shoes dependable middle class people to run things rather than nobles.

83. *absolute monarch- A ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs. King Phillip became an absolute monarch over Spain in 1556.

84. *divine rule- The absolute monarch believed that his authority to rule came directly from God which meant that eh could do whatever he wanted whenever he wanted and could rule over the church.

85. *cabinet- new feature of government- From, 1721 to 1742, Robert Walpole modeled the cabinet into a unified body, requiring all members to agree on major issues. The term cabinet was not used yet and Walpole was known as Britain’s first prime minister.

86. *Suffrage – The right to vote. The Radicals made suffrage available to all male citizens, not just property owners.

87. *Abdicate – To step down from power. Napoleon abdicated in 1814 as his enemies closed in on France.

88. *Robespierre – A lawyer and a politician who was voted into the National Assembly. His enemies overthrew and executed him in 1794.

89. *von Metternich – Prince Clemens of Austria pushed to create the Concert of Europe, which was a peacekeeping organization.

90. *nationalism – An aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Nationalism spread through France as monarchs centralized power.

91. *Napoleon – In 1804, he had accumulated enough power into his hands to take the title Emperor of the French. He made many reforms during his grand empire, which stretched all across Europe
92. *Louis XVI – Married Marie Antoinette and was very easily persuaded by others. He ran away from France to try and escape the mobs but he was found, brought back and executed.

93. *First, Second and Third Estates – The bourgeoisie is “the middle class” in France during the French Revolution. The third estate was made up of the middle class. This middle class consisted of prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufactures who helped to support France’s economy. The First and Second Estates held special privileges that the Third Estate did not have and this was one of the main reasons the French Revolution started. 

94. *Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen- All men, it announced, were "born and remain free of equal in rights." The Declaration further proclaimed that all male citizens were equal before the law.

95. *Napoleonic Code- It embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit. Women lost most of their newly gained rights under this new code and it was easy to see that  Napoleon valued order and authority over individual rights.

96. *cause of Napoleon's downfall- There was a new alliance between Russia, Britain, Austria, and Austria against a weakened France. His enemies closed in on Napolean and napolean abdicated, or stepped down from power.
97. *Reign of Terror – The Reign of Terror was a stage during the French Revolution that lasted from July 1793 to July 1794. Its chief architect was Maximilien Robespierre and about 40,000 people died during this period.

98. *Otto von Bismarck – Otto von Bismarck became prime minister of Germany in 1862. In the next decade, Bismarck had used his policy of "blood and iron" to unite the German states under Prussian rule

99. *revolution of 1905 – There were many strikes. Some workers overthrew local governments and some peasants revolted and demanded land. All the strikes happened after Bloody Sunday.

100. *William II – he succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser. He was extremely confident of his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany.

101. *threat to the Hapsburg Empire –The Hapsburgs were thought to have threatened Nationalism. Because of Francis Joseph’s belief of it being time for a change in government, nationalism was slowly destroyed.


102. *Enclosure – the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s, rich landowners had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and increased wool output.

103.*Utilitarianism – The idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens. Jeremy Bentham was the first to preach this by 1800.

104. *Factory movement – places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. People worked day and night in factories with machines that were run by running water, windmills, or coal.

105. *Urbanization – a movement of people to cities. In the Industrial Revolution, the factories brought a rapid urbanization.

106. *Founder of Methodist Church - In the mid-1700s, John Wesley had been the leader of a religious revival and founded the Methodist Church. He stressed the need for a personal sense of faith.

107. * Term for "working class" – Proletariat. Marx said that the proletariats were the “have-nots” and the bourgeoisie were the “haves”.

108. *Inventor who improved the steam engine – James Watt. The improved version used coal rather than waterpower.

109. *Which group most benefited from Ind. Rev. – The  middle class benefited the most form the industrial revolution. Job openings and new inventions increasing caused the middle class to benefit.

110.*How factory system changed workers' lives – Workers were forced to work in harsh conditions and many of them were injured or killed. Small children and women were sometimes forced to work in factories.

111. * Laissez-faire economics – Adam Smith believed that a free market-the unregulated exchange of goods and services-would eventually help everyone, not just the rich. Laissez-faire economics was a system of government “hands-off” of economics.

112. *Ethnocentrism- Ethnocentrism is belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. By the late 1800s, many Europeans and Americans claimed that the success of western civilization was due to the supremacy of the white race.

113. *Racism – the belief that one racial group is superior to another. In the late 1800s, many thought that the white race was supreme to all others.

114. *Assembly line – workers added parts to a project that move along from one workstation to the next. This made production fast and cheaper, which lowered the prices of goods.

115. *Corporation – businesses owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. They allowed businesses to expand depending on the amount of capital they made.

116. *Survival of the fittest/ in war or industry – Social Darwinism. Social Darwinists claimed that industrial tycoons earned their success because they were more fit than those they put out of business. War brought progress by weeding out weak nations because victory was seen as proof of superiority.

117. *Right to vote (term) – Suffrage allowed people the right to vote. In the late 1800s women suffrage groups emerged so that women could have the right to vote.

118. *Middle class- the largest class- worked in factories for small wages and even children worked the same for less money in return. The new middle class dressed well and ate large meals and also valued hard work and the determination to get ahead.
119. *peasants- the lowest poorest class was also little in number because of the large middle class. The peasant earned little money for their work in the factories
120. *nobility- the upper more wealthy class that was little in number because of the large middle class. Peasants began living like nobles with large houses, fancy clothing, and large meals. 
121.  *romanticism/ painting – A period that lasted from about 1750 to 1850 and shaped western literature and arts. Things like strong emotions were expressed during this time.

122.*Alfred Nobel- The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, an explosive much safer than those used at the time. With the money eh made Nobel funded the Nobel prize award.

123. *Joseph Lister – An English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevented infection. He had his surgeons wash their hands and use sterilized equipment, which reduced the rate of infections.

124. *Charles Darwin – a British nationalist. Darwin believed that all life forms had evolved from one primitive species in which he stated in On the Origin of Species. His followers were called Social Darwinists in which they were very racism.

125. *Women's suffrage movement – Many groups claimed that women should be allowed to vote. Although there were still many groups against women voting rights, many places outside of Europe were allowing women to vote.

126. *destruction of a religious or ethnic group (term) – Genocide. By the 1890s, nationalism was igniting new tensions between Turks and minority peoples. These tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people concentrated in the mountainous eastern region of the empire.

127. *sphere of influence – A territorial area over which political or economic influence is wielded by one nation. Europeans carved out these spheres in China and elsewhere to prevent conflicts among themselves. The United States claimed Latin America as its sphere of influence.

128. *protectorate – A relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region.

129. *imperialist – One who extends a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.

130. *justification for imperialism – The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.

131. *Ethiopia's resistance to Europe –Ethiopia was an ancient Christian kingdom that had survived in the highlands of East Africa. In the late 1800s, Menelik II began to modernize his country therefore, when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1896, Menelik was prepared. At the battle of Adowa, the Ethiopians smashed the Italian invaders.

132. *Decline of the Ottoman Empire – Britain, France, and Russia each sough to benefit from the slow crumbling Ottoman empire. The downfall started when ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had increased their power. Economic problems and corruption also contributed to Ottoman decay. As the idea of nationalism spread, internal revolts posed constant challenges within the multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire.

133. *Sepoy rebellion – The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northern and central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi where they ailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader.

134. *Indian National Congress – This was a congress that was made of professionals and business leaders who believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. Other Indian nationalists took a more radical stand. They wanted to restore Indian languages and Hindu and Muslim cultures.

135. *How Industrial Rev. encouraged imperialism – Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources. Bankers sought ventures in far-flung parts of the world in which to invest their profits.

136. *Europe's main interest in China was ? - Europe wanted China to become addicted to opium. That way, they could make huge profits off opium in China.

137. *Britain and Russia's desire to control Iran – Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India.

138. *Monroe Doctrine –.James Monroe  issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. It declared that the American continents could not be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.

139. *James Monroe –He was the fifth president and resented any alliance with Britain. For this reason he issued the Monroe doctrine.

140. *Matthew Perry – In July 1853, a fleet of well-armed American ships commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay. Perry had a letter from the President of the United States demanding that Japan open its ports to trade.

141.*James Cook – British navigator and explorer who commanded three major voyages of discovery, charting and naming many islands of the Pacific Ocean. He also sailed along the coast of North America as far north as the Bering Strait.

142.*Benito Juarez – In 1855, Benito Juárez and other liberals seized power, opening La Reforma, an era of reform. He and his fellow reformers revised the Mexican constitution to strip the military of power and end the special privileges of the Church.

143.*Japan controlled Korea

144.*Queen Liliuokalani  –Was the hawaiin queen who tried to reduce foreign influence but was overthrown by American planters. But she succeeded when Hawaii was annexed by the United States in 1898.

145.*Political consequences of imperialism – Many people were unhappy so they rebelled.

146.*British N. America Act of 1867- This created the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces in a self-governing nation. Six additional provinces joined the union in the later years.
147.*US intervention in Latin America in early 1900s – Americans thought that there was gold in Latin America. They were wrong and there were rebellions that happened because of the interventions.

148.*Australia and New Zealand independence – They broke off from Britain. They were no longer used as a place to send refugees. They were their own country.

149. *Profits from global economy went where? – Mostly the U.N.

150.*Imperialist Cecil Rhodes – Was a leading promoter of British imperialism. He declared “ the more the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race….If there be a God, I think what he would like me to do is to paint as much of the map of Africa british red as possible”

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Mr. Haskels History