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Danny Kelchner

Per 5   

 

WORLD WAR I STUDY GUIDE

CH. 27

Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to  each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the  other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text.  This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension  and command of the material. (Remember to double space between  terms for easier viewing).

 

Ch. 27

Militarism-Glorification of the military. Under militerism the military and rediness for war came to dominate national policy.

 

Ultimatum- Final Set of demands. statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted.

 

Mobilize- to prepare military forces for war. Russia mobilized its troops so they could deploy them at a moments notice.

 

Neutrality- policy of supporting neither side in a war. The US neutrality was a major issue in WWI

total war- The channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort. This is what all nations did In WWI when they relized that war was inevidible.

 

Propaganda-`the spreading of ideas to promote a certain cause or to damage an opposing cause. Propaganda was used by a nation ot get a different nation to support it. 

 

Atrocity-A Brutil act against innocent people. Germany often made atrocitious attacks of france and britan.

 

Armistice- agreement to end fighting in a war. Armistice was sought out by the german government when they relized that victory could not be attained.

 

Reparations- payment for a wars damages. The US paid for japan to rebuild after they dropped the atomic bomb.

 

Mandate- After WWI a territory that was administered by a western power

 

Edith Cavell- a british nurse that ran a red cross hospital in belguim even after germany invaded. When the germans discovered that she was helping allied prisoners esape, they shot her as a spy.

 

Georges Clemenceau-nick name is tiger for his fierce war policy. His chief goal was to weaken tgermany so that it could never again threaten france.

 

Alfred Nobel- The inventer of dynamite. Ashamed of his invention so he started the nobel prize.

 

Gavrillo Princip-the guy that assassinated the arch duke. He was only 19.

 

 

Sarajevo-the city where the arch duke was assassinated. It’s a crazy place.

 

Woodrow Wilson- the American president during WWI. Developed the 14 points of peace.

 

(Wilson's Fourteen Points Points) The fourteen points for peace were as follows: (1) abolition of secret diplomacy by open covenants, openly arrived at; (2) freedom of the seas in peace and war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or part by international action for enforcement of international covenants; (3) removal of international trade barriers wherever possible and establishment of an equality of trade conditions among the nations consenting to the peace; (4) reduction of armaments consistent with public safety; (5) adjustment of colonial disputes consistent with the interests of both the controlling government and the colonial population; (6) evacuation of Russian territory, with the proviso of self-determination; (7) evacuation and restoration of Belgium; (8) evacuation and restoration of French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine; (9) readjustment of Italian frontiers along clearly recognizable lines of nationality; (10) autonomy for the peoples of Austria-Hungary; (11) evacuation and restoration of territory to Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania, granting of seaports to Serbia, and readjustment and international guarantee of the national ambitions of the Balkan nations; (12) self-determination for non-Turkish peoples under Turkish control and internationalization of the Dardanelles; (13) an independent Poland, with access to the sea; and (14) creation of a general association of nations under specific covenants to give mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity.

 

Francis Ferdinand- The archduke of Austria. His assaination somewhat sparked WWI.

 

Kaiser William II- The emporer of Germany and the king of Prussia. His policies his policies brought about WWI

 

Bertha Von Sutner- A Austrian writer and a peace activist. She won the nobel prize in 1905.

 

Triple Alliance- concluded may 20 1882. It united italy, Austria-hungry and germany but was not considered against England.

 

Ottoman Empire- Until WWI the ottoman empire was flourishing. After it fell and its territory was carved into provinces of other nations that eventually became self governing.

 

trench warfare- warfare conducted using a form of field fortification consisting fo parallel rows of trenches. Trench warfare was used extensively in WWI.

 

machine gun (role it played in WWI)-Machine guns were not the main weapons of british soldiers. They needed between 4-6 men to man them in 1914 and had to be positioned on a flat surface. The new machine guns could fire up to 400 rounds per minute and they had the fire power of almost 100 guns.

 

airplane (role it played in WWI)-just a few years after the first flight airplanes were used for war purposes. Planes were used as bombers in which the pilot actually dropped the bomb or a crude lever system as well as shooting down other nations pilots.

 

role of women in WWI- Before WWI women stayed at home to cook and care for children. During the war however they were sent to work as part of the daily worforce sometimes doing industrial work that wupprorted the war effort.

 

Nationalism (ie. tension between France and Germany)- both france and germany had extreme sence of nationalism so they were always butting heads. When Ferdinand was assassinated it enraged the French and further sparked the scuffle to the point of war.

 

Paris Peace Conference- ver important in WWI. It was here that the treaty of Versailles was signed ending WWI between germany and the allies.

 

American neutrality-For three years as Europeans faced war on an unprecedented scale, the neutrality of the united states gradually slipped away. On may 7 1915 a german submarine attackeda a british passenger liner the lusitania killing for than a thousand people including 128 americans.

 

Black Hand- a terrorist group organized by bosia serbs. Principe joined this group before the assassination of francis Ferdinand. This group who was also involved in organizing all south slav people into a single nation was also known as unity or Death.

 

Treaty of Versailles-The Treaty of Versailles was singed at the paris peace conference. It ended the fighting between germany and the allies.

 

self determination-The right of a people to determine their own form of government. The Allies used this principle to add to their existing overseas empires by creating a system of mandates.

 

Shleiffen Plan- Was develoed by general Alfred von shleiffen and allowed germany to avoid two front war. He relized that Germanys military would be slow to mobilized. Under his plan germany had to first defeat france quickly.

 

U boat-German U boats were submarines used to launch torpedoes at enemy ships. U boats led many attacks on innocent merchant ships, which was one major reason the US joined the war.

 

Lusitania-Almost 1,200 people, including 128 Americans, were killed on the British liner the Lusitania. The Germans, after torpedoing the ship, justified the attack by arguing that it was carrying weapons, this urged the US into war.

 

Armistice-An armistice is an agreement that ends fighting. On November 11, 1918, Germany sought an armistice with the Allies, which eventually ended the war.

 

 

Mandate-Mandates are territories that were administered by western powers. The German colonies in Africa and Ottoman lands in the Middle East were gained by Britain and France after the w

 

war reparations-Reparations are payments for war damage. The Allies tried to blame the conflict on their defeated enemies and insisted that they make war reparations and pay in full for the damages caused during the war.

 

western front-On the western front, both sides burrowed in a vast system of trenches. No man’s land was the area in between trenches. With the new developments, such as machine guns, not very many men made it past this area.

 

 

 

 

eastern front-On the eastern front, battle lines swayed back and forth, usually over large areas. However, there were fewer casualties than on the more brutal Western front.

 

Verdun-The Battle of Verdun was one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Over 2 million people fought in the town of Verdun on February 21, 1916.

 

Battle of Marne- In the first battle at Marne on September 6, 1914, advances made by the Germans to Paris were stopped by the Allies, and the Germans retreated and abandoned the Shleiffen plan. On the second battle in July of 1918, the German army took a major blow before they were destroyed by the Allies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

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