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Dan Kelchner

Haskell

History

 

1.New Imperialism

a.     imperialism is the domination by one courty of political economic or cultural life of another courty or region

b.     European nations won empires in the Americas after 1492 and gained toholds on the coasts of Africa and china.

c.     Between 1870 to 1914 they brought much of the world under their control.

 

2. Motives of the new imperialists

a.     The industrial revolution created needs that spurred overseas expansion

b.     Many westerners felt a genuine convern for their brothers beyond the sea.

c.     Social Darwinism is darwins ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest to humans societies and nations.

3. Down the barrel of a gun

a.     Western imperialism succeeded for a numer of reason while European tantions had grown stronger.

b.     Europeans had the advantages of strong economies well organized governments and powerful armies and navies.

c.     Africans and Asians strongly resisted wetern expansion.

4. Forms of Imperial Control

a.     Imperial pwers established colonies. They sent out governors to control the people and set up a colonial bureaucracy.

b.     Protectorate local rulers were left in place the ruler was however expected to accept the adive of eupean advisors.

c.     Sphere of influence in area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.

 

5. On the eve of the scramble

a.     westerners knew little about Africa and called  it the dark continant.

b.     Africa was a huge continate there were many tribes and languages that were spoken there.

c.     There 4 regions in Africa

6. European contracs increase

a.     For centuriest Europeans had taken and enslaved Africans to workd the plantations and mines of the Americas.

b.     Freed slaves were brought to sierra leone which was a coloney for freed slaves.

c.     Dr livinstone for 30 years wrote about the many people he met with more sympathy and less bias than did most Europeans

7. The Great scramble begins

a.     With little understandin of or regard for traditional African patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries euopeans drew borders and set up fromtiers as they carved out their claims

b.     The population in some areas in Africa were a fraction from what they were before.

c.     In 1908 the congo was known as the belgin congo.

8. Carving up a continent.

a.     In the 1800s france took a giant share of Africa. In 1830 it had invaded and conquered Algeria and north Africa

b.     In the late 1800s the discovery of gold and diamonds in the boer republics set off the boer war.

c.     Almost every country in Europe controlled atleast a small portion of Africa.

9. Africans Fight back

a.     In almost every euopean colloney in Africa the Europeans met resistance.,

b.     Ethiopia was the only country that survived the great scramble.

c.     Menelik planed modern roads and bridges and set up a setern school sysem.

10.Ferment in the muslim world

a.     In the 1500s three giant muslim empires ruled much of this world the mughals the ottomans and the safavids.

b.     In their place they wanted to recapture the purity and simplicity of muhammads orgianal teachings.

c.     Europeans had favorable trades with the mmuslim world

11. Challenges to the ottoman empire.

a.     As ideas of nationism spread from western Europe internal revolts posed constant challenges within the multi thinic ottoman empire.

b.     Britain france and Russia ech sought to benefit from the slow crumbling of the ottoman held empire.

c.     In 1898 the new german empire jumped onto the bandwagon and invaded India.

12. Efforts at reform

a.      reforms brought better medical care and revitalized farming.

Growing population increased pressure on the land which led to unrest.

b.     the turks planed a genocide against the armanians.

c.     Muslim turks distrusted the christain Armenians and accused them of supporting Russian plans against the ottoman empire.

13. Egypt seeks to modernize

a.     Muhammad ali is sometimes called the father of modern Egypt.

b.     In 1859 french leaders in Egypt got a company to build the suez canal.

c.     Britain quickly expanded influences to Egypt when nationalist revolt erupted in 1882

14. Iran and the western powers.

a.     the government improved finances and sponcerd the building of telegraph lines and rainroads.

b.     Reform did not sav iran from western imperialism both Russia and Britain battled for influence in the area.

c.     Convcessions outraged Iranian nationalists.

 

 

 

15. East India company

a.     as mughal pwer crumpled India fragmented.

b.     The british took advantage fothis ferment by playing off rivial prices against eachother.

c.     The east India companys main goal in India was to make money and leading officials often got very rich.

16. The sepoy rebellion.

a.     in the 1850s the eas India company took several unpopular steps first it required sepoys to serve anywhere either in India or overseas.

b.     The final insult came in 1857 when the british issued new rifles to the sepoys.

c.     The sepoy rebellion swept across northern and central India.

17. The brightest jewel.

A.    After 1858 parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.

B.    Cash crops are crops that can be sold on the world market.

C.    The british introduced medical improvement at the same time new farming methods increased food production.

18. Indians and british viewing two cultures.

a.     In the early 1800s ram mohun roy combined both views.

b.     The british disagreed amon themselves about India.

c.     On the other hand most british people knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt.

19. Growing nationalism

a.     In 1885 nationalist leaders organized the Indian national congress.

b.     The Indian national congress looked forward to eventualself-rule but supported western syle modernization.

c.     At first muslim and hindus worked together for self rule.

20. The trade issue.

a.     balance of trade exporting more than it imported.

b.     Trade deficit buying more from the Chinese than they sold them.

c.     Indemnity is payment for losses in the war.

21.Internal pressures

a.     as poverty and misery incrfeades peasants rebelled

b.     the taiping rebels won control of large pars of china.

c.     The taiping rebellion is estimated to have caused the deaths of between 20million and 30million Chinese.

22. Refom effort.

a.     som Chinese wanted to adapt western ideas,

b.     the island nation of japan modernized rapidly after 1868

c.     Defeated by japan and humiliated by westerners the Chinese looked for scapegoat.

23. The empire crumbles

a.     Antiforeign feeling finally exploded in the boxer uprising.

b.     Although the boxer uprising failed the flames of Chinese taionalism spread.

c.     Sun tixian hurried home from a trip to the untied states.

 

Chp 26

 

1 Strains in Tokugawa Japan

a Japan closed trade with foreigners and did not allow Japanese to travel outside the country.

b In the 1800s there was a decline in Japan and the samurai were made because they were no longer fighters and a lot of them were government bureaucrats.

c Merchants had no say in the government and peasants had heavy taxes. And the government tried to fix this by reviving the old ways.

2 Opening up Japan

a The US made Japan open up to ports but not for trading and soon the US got other trading rights.

b The samurai rose against the shogun and restored the emperor t power.

c Then Japan set out to study western ways and they beat the westerners with their own game.

3 Fukuzawa Yukichi travels abroad

a He had a lot of pride in Japan and the Japanese built  a steam ship that sailed him to California

b Some things were surprising to the man like the carpet and the shoes worn on top of the carpet and the ice in warm weather.

c He helped the west to Japan and helped Japan become a global power.

4 Reforms Under the Meiji

a Reformers wanted to make a strong central government and they adopted the German form

b Economy was very important, government sold factories to rich families and they became powerful industrial families called zaibatsu

c Social classes were still there, Japan had success and they had a homogeneous society where every one is united.

5 Competition for Empire

a Japan lacked the resources to get bigger so they imperialized.

b With rivalry with china Japan over Korea lead to war and Japan one easy.

c Russia and Japan went to war and Japan destroyed most of their navy and their troops.

6 Korea: A focus of Competition

a Korea was one of the smaller nations and Japan forced them to open their doors to them.

b Japan helped modernize Korea and ruled them harsh, Koreans rebelled and Japan crushed them.

c Japan would control Korea and they became a very powerful country, soo they would clash with GB and the US

7 Colonizing Southeast Asia

a More imperialism happened and then the Dutch took over the Spice Islands and Indonesia

b GB gained control of Burma, meanwhile the French were sending missionaries to Vietnam

c Europe started to modernize southeast asia a lot with all the industries set up

8 Thailand survives

a Siam avoided incidents with western powers

b King Mingkut accepted some treaties.

c Him and his son upgraded and modernized the country

9 Imperialism and nationalism in the Philippines

a The Catholic church as accused of abusing the power they had in the Filippines and they rebelled

b The US got the island by accident when they went to war with Spain the US destroyed the Spainish fleet and gained the island

c  Then they rebelled against the US and they were crushed

10         Western powers in the pacific

a The US got an unequal treaty with Samoa

b When Lilioukalani tried to stop outside influence US planters over threw her

c Britain, France, US and Japan had claimed most of the Pacific

11        The Canadian Pattern

a France lost Canada to Britain and a lot of French, English and Indian people lived there.

b In upper and lower Canada discontent grew so GB sent Gurham to see to the needs and then they united Canada to one

c Canada become united and self governed, MacDonald, the 1st prime minister, wanted and did expand the nation pushing Natives out.

12         Europeans in Australia

a The Aborigines suffered by the incoming British and they brought prisoners to the continent

b Britain got people to go by offering them free stuff then people went and found gold.

c    Australia made a constitution like GB and the US’s and also gave women voting rights

13        New Zealand

a GB sent missionaries to New Zealand the Maoris fought to defend their land.

b With all the wars with colonists, and the things brought from Europe the Maoris suffered and lost population.

c White new Zealanders sough independence and got it they had close ties with the British empire.

14         Problems facing the new nations

a Bolivar hoped for union with the Latin American nations but instead 20 different nations but they were plagued by revolts, civil war and dictatorships

b Spain and Portugal still kept control, even thought the colonies wars for independence not much changed.

c The leaders did not change much and caudillos were dictators and the nations split between liberals and conservatives.

15        The Economics of dependence

a When independence came the US and GB replaced spain as the chief leader and Latin America was economically dependant on the US.

b The foreign influence was huge and countries like GB pressured the government to take action if bad things in the Latin Americas happened so they could keep their interests

c Latin America started to grow in economy, more resources were being exported and industries were growing slowly.

16         Mexico’s struggle for stability

a Santa Anna was a liberal at 1st then changed and crushed reformers, when Texas decided to get independence from Mexico and the US annexed them and war came. US beat Mexico.

b Juarez wanted gained power wit other liberals and wanted to reform, conservatives did not this led to civil war and liberals won, but Juarez died and didn’t make any reforms.

c Diaz took over and he changed strengthened a few things but some things did not change and soon Mexicans ordered democracy.

17         Colossus of the North

a The US beat Spain and gained Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, and the Caribbean. Then later they made it so Cuba had to let the US use their naval bases.

b The Roosevelt Corollary said that the US had international police power and they sent troops to many places that did not pay their debts.

c The US joined a rebellion against Columbia w/Panama and when they got independence US got the OK to build the canal.

18        New economic patterns

a Money was introduced and people had to pay taxes with them the only way to get money was to work on plantations, rail roads, and mines.

b With all the technology the economy was controlled by outside nations and it made it so the colonist could not compete.

c         Modernization and colonial rule did bring economic benefits, like new technology.

19         Cultural impact

a When westerners conquered they made the people westernize and modernize so accepted it and some did not.

b Western culture was spread by missionaries and schools, missionaries also spread over the globe teaching Christianity to nations.

c Western culture changed also, they were influenced by other cultures.

20        New Political Tensions

a Imperialism changed many things in the world.

b In the early 1900s Africa and Asia people were trying to end colonial rule.

            c             The world powers like France and Germany almost got into a few wars.


  

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Mr. Haskels History