imperialism is the domination by one courty of political
economic or cultural life of another courty or region
European nations won empires in the Americas after 1492 and
gained toholds on the coasts of Africa and china.
Between 1870 to 1914 they brought much of the world under
2. Motives of the new
The industrial revolution created needs that spurred overseas
Many westerners felt a genuine convern for their brothers beyond
Social Darwinism is darwins ideas about natural selection and
survival of the fittest to humans societies and nations.
3. Down the barrel
of a gun
Western imperialism succeeded for a numer of reason while
European tantions had grown stronger.
Europeans had the advantages of strong economies well
organized governments and powerful armies and navies.
Africans and Asians strongly resisted wetern expansion.
of Imperial Control
Imperial pwers established colonies. They sent out governors to
control the people and set up a colonial bureaucracy.
Protectorate local rulers were left in place the ruler was
however expected to accept the adive of eupean advisors.
Sphere of influence in area in which an outside power claimed
exclusive investment or trading privileges.
On the eve of the scramble
westerners knew little about Africa and called it the dark continant.
Africa was a huge continate there were many tribes and
languages that were spoken there.
There 4 regions in Africa
6. European contracs increase
For centuriest Europeans had taken and enslaved Africans to
workd the plantations and mines of the Americas.
Freed slaves were brought to sierra leone which was a coloney
for freed slaves.
Dr livinstone for 30 years wrote about the many people he met
with more sympathy and less bias than did most Europeans
7. The Great scramble
With little understandin of or regard for traditional African
patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries euopeans drew borders and set up
fromtiers as they carved out their claims
The population in some areas in Africa were a fraction from
what they were before.
In 1908 the congo was known as the belgin congo.
8. Carving up a
In the 1800s france took a giant share of Africa. In 1830 it
had invaded and conquered Algeria and north Africa
In the late 1800s the discovery of gold and diamonds in the
boer republics set off the boer war.
Almost every country in Europe controlled atleast a small
portion of Africa.
9. Africans Fight back
In almost every euopean colloney in Africa the Europeans met
Ethiopia was the only country that survived the great
Menelik planed modern roads and bridges and set up a setern
10.Ferment in the muslim world
In the 1500s three giant muslim empires ruled much of this
world the mughals the ottomans and the safavids.
In their place they wanted to recapture the purity and
simplicity of muhammads orgianal teachings.
Europeans had favorable trades with the mmuslim world
to the ottoman empire.
As ideas of nationism spread from western Europe internal
revolts posed constant challenges within the multi thinic ottoman empire.
Britain france and Russia ech sought to benefit from the slow
crumbling of the ottoman held empire.
In 1898 the new german empire jumped onto the bandwagon and
12. Efforts at reform
better medical care and revitalized farming.
pressure on the land which led to unrest.
the turks planed a genocide against the armanians.
Muslim turks distrusted the christain Armenians and accused
them of supporting Russian plans against the ottoman empire.
13. Egypt seeks to modernize
Muhammad ali is sometimes called the father of modern Egypt.
In 1859 french leaders in Egypt got a company to build the
Britain quickly expanded influences to Egypt when nationalist
revolt erupted in 1882
14. Iran and the western powers.
the government improved finances and sponcerd the building of
telegraph lines and rainroads.
Reform did not sav iran from western imperialism both Russia
and Britain battled for influence in the area.
Convcessions outraged Iranian nationalists.
15. East India company
as mughal pwer crumpled India fragmented.
The british took advantage fothis ferment by playing off
rivial prices against eachother.
The east India companys main goal in India was to make money
and leading officials often got very rich.
16. The sepoy rebellion.
in the 1850s the eas India company took several unpopular steps
first it required sepoys to serve anywhere either in India or overseas.
The final insult came in 1857 when the british issued new
rifles to the sepoys.
The sepoy rebellion swept across northern and central India.
The brightest jewel.
After 1858 parliament set up a system of colonial rule in
Cash crops are crops that can be sold on the world market.
The british introduced medical improvement at the same time
new farming methods increased food production.
18. Indians and british
viewing two cultures.
In the early 1800s ram mohun roy combined both views.
The british disagreed amon themselves about India.
On the other hand most british people knew little about Indian
achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt.
19. Growing nationalism
In 1885 nationalist leaders organized the Indian national
The Indian national congress looked forward to
eventualself-rule but supported western syle modernization.
At first muslim and hindus worked together for self rule.
balance of trade exporting more than it imported.
Trade deficit buying more from the Chinese than they sold
Indemnity is payment for losses in the war.
as poverty and misery incrfeades peasants rebelled
the taiping rebels won control of large pars of china.
The taiping rebellion is estimated to have caused the deaths
of between 20million and 30million Chinese.
22. Refom effort.
som Chinese wanted to adapt western ideas,
the island nation of japan modernized rapidly after 1868
Defeated by japan and humiliated by westerners the Chinese
looked for scapegoat.
23. The empire crumbles
Antiforeign feeling finally exploded in the boxer uprising.
Although the boxer uprising failed the flames of Chinese
Sun tixian hurried home from a trip to the untied states.
in Tokugawa Japan
closed trade with foreigners and did not allow Japanese to travel outside the
the 1800s there was a decline in Japan and the samurai were made because they
were no longer fighters and a lot of them were government bureaucrats.
had no say in the government and peasants had heavy taxes. And the government
tried to fix this by reviving the old ways.
US made Japan open up to ports but not for trading and soon the US got other
samurai rose against the shogun and restored the emperor t power.
Japan set out to study western ways and they beat the westerners with their own
Yukichi travels abroad
had a lot of pride in Japan and the Japanese built a steam ship that
sailed him to California
things were surprising to the man like the carpet and the shoes worn on top of
the carpet and the ice in warm weather.
helped the west to Japan and helped Japan become a global power.
Under the Meiji
wanted to make a strong central government and they adopted the German form
was very important, government sold factories to rich families and they became
powerful industrial families called zaibatsu
classes were still there, Japan had success and they had a homogeneous society
where every one is united.
lacked the resources to get bigger so they imperialized.
rivalry with china Japan over Korea lead to war and Japan one easy.
and Japan went to war and Japan destroyed most of their navy and their troops.
A focus of Competition
was one of the smaller nations and Japan forced them to open their doors to
helped modernize Korea and ruled them harsh, Koreans rebelled and Japan crushed
would control Korea and they became a very powerful country, soo they would
clash with GB and the US
imperialism happened and then the Dutch took over the Spice Islands and
gained control of Burma, meanwhile the French were sending missionaries to
started to modernize southeast asia a lot with all the industries set up
avoided incidents with western powers
Mingkut accepted some treaties.
and his son upgraded and modernized the country
and nationalism in the Philippines
Catholic church as accused of abusing the power they had in the Filippines and
US got the island by accident when they went to war with Spain the US destroyed
the Spainish fleet and gained the island
they rebelled against the US and they were crushed
powers in the pacific
US got an unequal treaty with Samoa
Lilioukalani tried to stop outside influence US planters over threw her
France, US and Japan had claimed most of the Pacific
lost Canada to Britain and a lot of French, English and Indian people lived
upper and lower Canada discontent grew so GB sent Gurham to see to the needs
and then they united Canada to one
become united and self governed, MacDonald, the 1st prime minister, wanted and
did expand the nation pushing Natives out.
Aborigines suffered by the incoming British and they brought prisoners to the
got people to go by offering them free stuff then people went and found gold.
Australia made a constitution
and the US’s and also gave women voting rights
sent missionaries to New Zealand the Maoris fought to defend their land.
all the wars with colonists, and the things brought from Europe the Maoris
suffered and lost population.
new Zealanders sough independence and got it they had close ties with the
facing the new nations
hoped for union with the Latin American nations but instead 20 different
nations but they were plagued by revolts, civil war and dictatorships
and Portugal still kept control, even thought the colonies wars for
independence not much changed.
leaders did not change much and caudillos were dictators and the nations split
between liberals and conservatives.
Economics of dependence
independence came the US and GB replaced spain as the chief leader and Latin
America was economically dependant on the US.
foreign influence was huge and countries like GB pressured the government to
take action if bad things in the Latin Americas happened so they could keep
America started to grow in economy, more resources were being exported and
industries were growing slowly.
struggle for stability
Anna was a liberal at 1st then changed and crushed reformers, when Texas
decided to get independence from Mexico and the US annexed them and war came.
US beat Mexico.
wanted gained power wit other liberals and wanted to reform, conservatives did
not this led to civil war and liberals won, but Juarez died and didn’t make any
took over and he changed strengthened a few things but some things did not
change and soon Mexicans ordered democracy.
of the North
US beat Spain and gained Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, and the Caribbean.
Then later they made it so Cuba had to let the US use their naval bases.
Roosevelt Corollary said that the US had international police power and they
sent troops to many places that did not pay their debts.
US joined a rebellion against Columbia w/Panama and when they got independence
US got the OK to build the canal.
was introduced and people had to pay taxes with them the only way to get money
was to work on plantations, rail roads, and mines.
all the technology the economy was controlled by outside nations and it made it
so the colonist could not compete.
and colonial rule did bring
economic benefits, like new technology.
westerners conquered they made the people westernize and modernize so accepted
it and some did not.
culture was spread by missionaries and schools, missionaries also spread over
the globe teaching Christianity to nations.
culture changed also, they were influenced by other cultures.
changed many things in the world.
the early 1900s Africa and Asia people were trying to end colonial rule.
c The world powers like France and Germany
almost got into a few wars.