Chp 27 outline
Pressure for Peace
the late 1800’s and early 1900’s saw serious efforts to end the scourge of war.
the struggle for women’s suffrage throughout Europe supported the peace
governments backed peace efforts. In 1899, the First Universal Peace
Conference brought together leaders of many nations in The Hague in the
nationalism can be a positive force, binding together a nation’s people.
Alsace and Lorraine, nationalism was strong in both Germany and France.
Pan Slavism, in Eastern Europe, Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism
called Pan Slavism.
Economic and Imperial Rivalries
economic rivalries further poisoned the international atmosphere.
the British felt threatened by Germany’s rapid economic growth,
imperialism also divided European nations.
Militarism and the Arms Race
the late 1800’s saw a rise in militarism, the glorification of the military.
the rise in militarism grew partly out of the ideas of Social Darwinism.
the arms race, as international tensions grew, the great powers expanded their
armies and navies.
A Tangle of Alliances
fear and distrust led the great powers to protect themselves through alliances.
the central powers, the first alliances had their origins in Bismarck’s day.
the allies, a rival bloc took shape in 1894, when France and Russia signed an
A murder With Millions of Victims
on a spring night in 1914, a small group of young revolutionaries huddled
around a café table in Belgrade, Serbia.
the Serbians were outraged because an article said that Archduke Francis
Ferdinand of Austria Hungary would visit Sarajevo, the capital of neighboring
Bosnia, on June 28.
the killer, among the group was a youth of nineteen named Gavrilo Princip.
The Austrians were very mad over the Serbians assignation of Francis Ferdinand
so they decided to punish Serbia very much.
The Austrians sent out an ultimatum to avoid war with the Serbians but they did
not accept it.
C. Serbia Allied with Russia and Russia
mobilized for war.
A. Through the years the war was blamed
on many different people from the Austrians to the Serbians and even to the
Even though Austria was blamed the most Germany stayed with them.
However now people see that no matter what all of those countries shared blame
in the war.
The Western Front
When the War began the German were the leader taking over many cities.
On the Western front many trenches were dug for cover.
Trench Warfare was a very affective tool keeping many of the soldiers alive.
Other European Fronts
On the eastern front much more people survived then on the Western Front.
Russia suffered one of the worst defeats of the war in the battle of
In 1915 Bulgaria Joined the war.
The War beyond Europe
Even though most of the fighting was in Europe the Great War was a conflict all
over the world.
The German overran many of the German civilian colonies.
Many of these civilians did not know whether to join the war or but some joined
in a heart beat.
Effects of the Stalemate
Total war is the channeling of an entire nations money into the war effort.
Total war hurt many of the civilian colonies because it left no money for them
to eat or basically even live.
Propaganda was also spread all over the world, this was the spreading of ideas
to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause.
Women at War
As men left to fight the women took over much of the jobs for their country.
Many of the military nurses had to enter the battlefield to save lives.
Edith Cavell was one of the first women in the war who became a national hero.
Germany was sending children onto the battlefields to fight.
Three years of war for Russia was devastating to it’s economy and social life.
When Russia took itself our of the war it gave breathing room for the Germans
to concentrate it’s forces on the western front.
The United States Declares War
The United States entered the war because many of their merchant ships were
being destroyed by German Submarine attacks.
In April 1917 the U.S. congress was asked to declare war.
By 1918 America was ready and prepared for war.
Campaign to Victory
A. 1918 The Germans launched a giant
offensive and pushed the allies back.
B. The allies the launched a
counterattack and pushed the Germans back through France and Belgium.
An Armistice is a treaty that ends war.
The Coats of War
More than 8.5 million people had died during the war, in addition to material
and economic tolls.
The allies insisted that the losers make reparation, or payments for war
In just a few months the flu swept around the world killing more than 20
million people – twice what the war had.
The Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson seemed a symbol of hope to the weary and angry world.
Wilson was one of three strong personalities that dominated the Paris Peace
Crowds of other representatives circled around the “Big Three” with their own
demands and interests.
The Treaty of Versailles
In June 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German
Republic to the palace of Versailles outside Paris to sign the Treaty of
Versailles, written up by the Allies.
It also imposed huge reparations that would put and already damaged German
economy under a staggering burden.
The Germans signed because they had no choice.
Allies drew up separate treaties with the other Central Powers.
A band of new nations emerged where the German, Austrian, and Russian empires
had once ruled, and one of these new nations was Poland, who had regained
independence after more than 100 years of foreign rule.
In the Balkans the peacemakers created a new south Slav state, Yugoslavia,
dominated by Serbia.
Hopes for Global Peace
The Paris peace conference offered one beacon of hope in the League of Nations.
More than 40 nations joined the league to ensure the peace.
C. The league was
powerless to prevent aggression or war.