1 The Mexican Revolution
a By 1910, the dictator Porfirio Diaz had
ruled Mexico for
almost 35 years,
winning reelection as president again and again.
b In 1910, Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer, demanded free elections.
c Fighting flared across Mexico for a decade, killing as many as a
a In 1917, Venustiano Carranza, a conservative, was elected president
b The Constitution of 1917 addressed three
major issues: land, religion, and
c Nationalization is when the government takes
control. This was
permitted by the constitution.
3 Rising Tide of
a During the 1920s and 1930s, world events
affected Latin American economies.
b Local entrepreneurs urged their governments
to raise tariffs to protect the new
industries, this caused some nations
to also nationalize resources.
c In the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, Jose
Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros,
and other muralists created magnificent works that won worldwide acclaim.
4 The “Good
a During and after World War I, investments by
the United States in
of Latin America
especially as British influence declined.
b During the Mexican Revolution, the United
leaders who it
thought would protect American interests.
c In the 1920s Augusto Cesar Sandino led a
guerrilla movement against United
States forces occupying his country.
5 Movements for
Change in Africa
a During the early 1900s in Kenya and Rhodesia white settlers forced Africans off the best land.
b Opposition to imperialism grew among Africans, and
those who had lost their lands to
Europeans sometimes squatted,
or settled illegally, on white-owned plantations.
c They imposed a system of racial segregation
that became known as apartheid.
a A movement known as Pan-Africanism began
to nourish the nationalist spirit
during the 1920s.
b Led by the African American W.E.B. Dubois,
Pan-Africanists tried to forge a
c In 1922, the British finally agreed to
declare Egypt independent.
7 Modernization in Turkey and Iran
a In 1918 the defeated Ottoman empire collapsed.
b Like Peter the Great in Russia, Ataturk forced his people to wear
western dress, and
replaced Arabic script with the western Latin alphabet.
c In 1925, an ambitious army officer, Reza
Khan, overthrew the shah.
8 Arab Nationalism
and European Mandates
a During the 1920s and 1930s the Arabs anger
erupted in frequent protests and
revolts against western imperialism.
b In 1897, Theodor Herzl responded to
growing anti-Semitism in Europe by
founding the modern Zionist movement.
c In the 1930s, anti-Semitism in
Germany and Eastern
many Jews to seek safety in
9 Moves Toward
a During World War I more than a million Indians
had served overseas, suffering
b To quiet nationalist demands, the British
promised India greater
self-government after the war.
c Since 1885, the Congress party had pressed
for self-rule within the British
a Mohandas Gandhi came from a middle-class Hindu
family, at age 19 he went to England
to study law, and after returning
to India, he tried to set up his own law practice but soon joined an
Indian law firm in
b Henry David Thoreau, and American philosopher
of the 1800s believed
disobedience, which was the refusal to obey unjust laws.
c During the 1920s and 1930s, he launched a
series of nonviolent actions against
a In 1930 Gandhi set out to end the British
b On March 12, with 78 followers, he set out
on a 240-mile march to the sea.
c Gandhi’s campaign of nonviolence and the
self0sacrifice of his followers slowly
forced Britain to agree to
hand over some power to Indians and to meet other demands of the Congress party.
a During the 1930s, the Muslim league gained an
able leader in Muhammad Ali
b In 1939, Indians were well on their way to
independence, when another world
war exploded again.
c When the war ended in 1945, independence
could no longer be delayed.
a In 1912, Sun Yizian stepped down as
president in favor of a powerful
general, Yuan Shikai.
b In 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference,
the victorious Allies gave Japan
control over German possessions
c By the 1920s, a small group of Chinese
communists had formed their own party.
for a New China
a In 1921, Sun Yixian and his Guomindang, or
Nationalist, party established a
government in South China.
b In 1934, in an epic retreat known as the
Long March, Mao and about 100,000
of his followers fled the Guomindang.
c From 1937 to 1945, the Guomindang, the
Communists, and the Japanese were
locked in a three0sided struggle.
Changes of the
a In the 1920s, Japan moved toward greater democracy,
political parties grew stronger, and
elected members of the Diet-the
Japanese parliament-exerted their power.
b By the 1920s, the powerful business
leaders known as the zaibatsu strongly
influenced politics thorough donations
to political parties.
c The economy grew more slowly in the 1920s
than at any time since Japan had
a In 1929, the Great Depression rippled
across the Pacific, striking Japan
with devastating force.
b Japanese nationalists were further outraged by
racial policies in the United
States, Canada, and
Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.
c In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers
provoked an incident that would
provide an excuse to seize Manchuria.
a By the early 1930s, ultranationalists were
winning popular support for
foreign conquests and a tough
stand against the western powers.
b Civilian government survived, but by 1937 it had
been forced to accept military
c During the 1930s, Japan took advantage of China’s civil war to increase its influence