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Danny Kelchner

Per 4

 

 

Chapter 29 Outline

1   The  Mexican Revolution

a    By  1910, the dictator Porfirio Diaz had ruled Mexico  for almost 35 years, winning reelection as president again and again.

b   In  1910, Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer,  demanded free elections.

c    Fighting  flared across Mexico  for a decade, killing as many as a million Mexicans.

 

2   Reforms

a    In  1917, Venustiano Carranza,  a conservative, was elected president of Mexico.

b   The  Constitution of 1917 addressed three major issues: land, religion, and  labor.

c        Nationalization  is when the government takes control.   This was also permitted by the constitution.

 

3   Rising  Tide of Nationalism

a    During  the 1920s and 1930s, world events affected Latin American economies.

b   Local  entrepreneurs urged their governments to raise tariffs to protect the new  industries, this caused some nations to also  nationalize resources.

c    In  the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro  Siqueiros, and other muralists created magnificent works that won  worldwide acclaim.

 

4   The  “Good Neighbor” Policy

a    During  and after World War I, investments by the United  States in the nations of Latin  America soared, especially as British influence declined.

b   During  the Mexican Revolution, the United States  supported leaders who it thought would protect American interests.

c    In  the 1920s Augusto Cesar Sandino led a guerrilla movement against United  States forces occupying his country.

 

5   Movements  for Change in Africa

a    During  the early 1900s in Kenya  and Rhodesia  white settlers forced Africans off the best land.

b   Opposition  to imperialism grew among Africans, and those who had lost their lands to  Europeans sometimes squatted, or settled illegally, on white-owned  plantations.

c    They  imposed a system of racial segregation that became known as apartheid.

 

6   Growing  Self-Confidence

a    A  movement known as Pan-Africanism began to nourish the nationalist spirit  during the 1920s.

b   Led  by the African American W.E.B. Dubois, Pan-Africanists tried to forge a  united front.

c    In  1922, the British finally agreed to declare Egypt  independent.

 

7        Modernization  in Turkey  and Iran

a    In  1918 the defeated Ottoman empire  collapsed.

b   Like  Peter the Great in Russia,  Ataturk forced his people to wear western  dress, and he also replaced Arabic script with the western Latin  alphabet.

c    In  1925, an ambitious army officer, Reza Khan, overthrew the shah.

 

8   Arab  Nationalism and European Mandates

a    During  the 1920s and 1930s the Arabs anger erupted in frequent protests and  revolts against western imperialism.

b   In  1897, Theodor Herzl responded to growing anti-Semitism in Europe  by founding the modern Zionist movement.

c    In  the 1930s, anti-Semitism in Germany  and Eastern Europe forced many Jews to seek safety  in Palestine.

 

9   Moves  Toward Independence

a    During  World War I more than a million Indians had served overseas, suffering  heavy casualties.

b   To  quiet nationalist demands, the British promised India  greater self-government after the war.

c    Since  1885, the Congress party had pressed for self-rule within the British  empire.

 

10 Mohandas  Gandhi

a    Mohandas  Gandhi came from a middle-class Hindu family, at age 19 he went to England  to study law, and after returning to India,  he tried to set up his own law practice but soon joined an Indian law  firm in South Africa.

b   Henry  David Thoreau, and American philosopher of the  1800s believed in civil disobedience, which was the refusal to obey  unjust laws.

c    During  the 1920s and 1930s, he launched a series of nonviolent actions against  British rule.

 

11 The  Salt March

a    In  1930 Gandhi set out to end the British salt monopoly.

b   On  March 12, with 78 followers, he set out on a 240-mile march to the sea.

c    Gandhi’s  campaign of nonviolence and the self0sacrifice of his followers slowly  forced Britain  to agree to hand over some power to Indians and to meet other demands of the  Congress party.

 

12 Looking  Ahead

a    During  the 1930s, the Muslim league gained an able leader in Muhammad Ali  Jinnah.

b   In  1939, Indians were well on their way to independence, when another world  war exploded again.

c    When  the war ended in 1945, independence could no longer be delayed.

 

13 The Chinese  Republic

a    In  1912, Sun Yizian stepped down as president in favor of a powerful  general, Yuan Shikai.

b   In  1919, at the Paris Peace Conference, the victorious Allies gave Japan  control over German possessions in China.

c    By the  1920s, a small group of Chinese communists had formed their own party.

 

14 Leaders  for a New China

a    In  1921, Sun Yixian and his Guomindang, or Nationalist, party established a  government in South China.

b   In  1934, in an epic retreat known as the Long March, Mao and about 100,000  of his followers fled the Guomindang.

c    From  1937 to 1945, the Guomindang, the Communists, and the Japanese were  locked in a three0sided struggle.

 

15 Liberal  Changes of the 1920s

a    In  the 1920s, Japan  moved toward greater democracy, political parties grew stronger, and  elected members of the Diet-the Japanese parliament-exerted their power.

b   By  the 1920s, the powerful business leaders known as the zaibatsu strongly  influenced politics thorough donations to political parties.

c    The  economy grew more slowly in the 1920s than at any time since Japan  had modernized.

 

16 The  Nationalist Reaction

a    In  1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan  with devastating force.

b   Japanese  nationalists were further outraged by racial policies in the United  States, Canada,  and Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.

c    In  1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would  provide an excuse to seize Manchuria.

 

17 Militarists  in Power

a    By  the early 1930s, ultranationalists were winning popular support for  foreign conquests and a tough stand against the western powers.

b   Civilian  government survived, but by 1937 it had been forced to accept military  domination.

c    During  the 1930s, Japan  took advantage of China’s  civil war to increase its influence there.

 

  

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