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Totalitarianism/ Democracy in Crisis
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).

Ch. 29

apartheid- A system of racial segregation. This system was enforced to ensure white economic power.

civil disobedience- Is the refusal to obey unjust laws. Henry David Thoreau, an American philosopher of the 1800s believed in civil disobedience and he was admired by Gandhi.

Diego Rivera- In the 1920s and 1930s created magnificent works that won worldwide acclaim. They portrayed the struggles of Mexican people for liberty.

Hirohito-  Reigned from 1926 to 1989 which is an unbelievable 63 years. Under his rule Japan experienced remarkable successes and appalling tragedies.

Jiang Jieshi- Took over the Guomingdang after Sun’s death and he received military training in Japan. Jiang had little interest in either democracy or communism but was determined to reunite China.

Muhammad Ali Jinrah-Came from a middle-class background and had studied law in England. After a while he later threw his support behind the idea of a separate state for Muslims.

Nationalization- Means government takeover. The Constitution of 1917 permitted the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners owning land, and allowed nationalization of natural resources.

Pancho Villa- He was a radical leader who was a hard riding rebel from the north during the Mexican revolution. He won loyalty from his peasant followers but in the process killed millions of them.

Cause of the 1910 Mexico Revolution- the cause was that wealthy landowners, business people and foreign investors prospered while peasants were in desperate poverty with no chance of improvement. When Francisco Madero raised the flag of revolt, revolutionaries all across Mexico followed.

Pan-Africanism-Emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world. One of its most inspiring leaders was Jamaican- born Marcus Garvey who preached “ Africa for Africans”

Mandate System (M. East)- The mandate system was a group of territories administered by European nations. These angered the Arab nations who at the end of WWI felt betrayed by the west when they were promised independence for their help in fighting.

Great Salt March- Gandhi believed that the British imposed salt monopoly was an evil burden because of severe taxing. Natural salt was available in the seas but Indians were forbidden to touch or sell it. Gandhi’s intention was to shake Indians feelings toward British colonial rule.

May Fourth Movement- It was a large group of students gathered Beijing and declared “Chinas territory may be conquered, but it can not be given away.” Students organized boycotts whose chief goal was to strengthen the empire of China.

Effect of Great Depression in Japan- Trade and economic lifeline suffered as foreign buyers could no longer afforded Japanese silks and other exports which the Japanese heavily relied on.  Unemployment increased and peasants faced starvation in rural villages.

CH. 30

general strike- Is a strike by workers in many different industries at the same time. In 1926 a general strike lasted nine days and involved some three million workers.

stream of consciousness-  A technique in which a writer probes a character’s random thoughts and feelings without imposing any logic or order.  British novelist Virginia Woolf used stream of consciousness to explore hidden thoughts of people as they go through ordinary actions of their every day lives.
flapper- A person who rejected old ways. The first flappers were American, but their European sisters soon adopted the fashion.

concentration camp-  Detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state. Tens of thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps.

Leon Blum- His popular Front government tried to solve labor problems and passed some social legislation. This kind of government could not satisfy more radical leftists whose strikes soon brought down Blum’s government.

Marie Curie- She was a Polish-born French chemist. She shared a 1903 Nobel Prize with her husband, Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel for fundamental research on radioactivity. In 1911 she won a second Nobel Prize for her discovery and study of radium and polonium.

Franklin D. Roosevelt- He was the 32nd President of the United States. Governor of New York, he ran for President with the promise of a New Deal for the American people.

Virginia Woolf- He was a British writer whose works include fiction written in an experimental stream-of-consciousness style. Woolf used this to express the hidden thoughts of people through there everyday lives.

Albert Einstein- He was a German-born American theoretical physicist whose special and general theories of relativity revolutionized modern thought on the nature of space and time. His work formed a theoretical base for the exploitation of atomic energy.

James Joyce- He was an Irish writer whose literary innovations have had a profound influence on modern fiction. His works include Ulysses and Finnegan’s Wake.

Pablo Picasso- He was a famous Spanish artist. He became one of the most prolific and influential artists of the 20th century. Picasso excelled in painting, sculpture, etching, stage design, and ceramics.

Joseph Pilsudski- He was the dictator of Poland. He was a fascist leader who based his ideas on the model set in Italy by Benito Mussolini.

Frank Lloyd Wright- He was an American architect whose distinctive style, based on natural forms, had a great influence on the modern movement in architecture. His designs included private homes, the Johnson Wax Company Building in Racine, Wisconsin, and the Guggenheim Museum in New York City.

Kellog-Briand Pact- This pact was an agreement that almost every independent nation signed. This was set up to renounce an instrument of national policy. This was a pursuit of disarmament in the world.

Fascism- A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism. Benito Mussolini is said to be the father of Fascism.

Adolph Hitler- Hitler was an Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich. His fascist philosophy was embodied in Mein Kampf, meaning my struggle.

totalitarian rule- Totalitarian rule was a system of government in which the government had complete control over every aspect of life. Hitler’s fascists’ ideas brought about a totalitarian rule in Germany.

Mein Kampf- This was the book, My Struggle, which Hitler wrote when he was in jail. In it he expressed many things, including racism and other anti-Semitism.

campaign against the Jews- Hitler wanted to drive the Jews out of Germany. The Nuremberg placed severe restrictions against the Jews such as not being allowed to marry non Jews, attending or teaching at German schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, or publishing books.

Great Depression- The economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s. It first hit America, but soon spread to its business partners in Europe and eventually throughout the world and across the Pacific.

Mussolini- He was the Italian Fascist dictator and prime minister who conducted an expansionist foreign policy, formalized an alliance with Germany, and brought Italy into World War II. Dismissed by Victor Emmanuel III, he led a puppet Nazi government in northern Italy until he was assonated in 1945.

Weimar Republic- The Weimer was a democratic government that failed in Germany, giving rise to Hitler. It gave both women and men the right to vote along with other rights soon to be stripped away.

Kristallnacht- This was also known as the night of the broken glass. These days occurred on November 9th and 10th, 1938. This was when the Nazi mobs led attacks against the Jewish community under Hitler’s ruling.

List causes of Great Depression- A major problem was overproduction, which in turn increased the demand for raw materials.  Higher farm output was met with a low demand, Consumers benefited, but the producers went out of business. Industrial workers won higher wages and raised the price of manufactured goods which made low living people not being able to afford lifes essentials. This was an imbalance which was one fot he causes of the Great Depression.

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Mr. Haskels History