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Chapter 31 Outline

I. Early Challenges to World Peace
A. Japanese military leaders and ultranationalists felt that Japan should have an empire equal to those of the western powers
B. Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 and because of that the League of Nations put sanctions on Italy but they never followed through with them
C. AS war started to brew the United States congress passed a series of neutrality acts one of which forbid the sale of arms to any nation

II.  The Spanish Civil War
A. The republican government passed a series of reforms one of which ending the Church control of education
B. Francisco Franco in 1936 led the nationalists in the bloody civil war he was backed by Hitler and Mussolini
C. The Nazi leaders attack on Huernica was called an “experiment” to see what their new planes could do

III. German Aggression Continues
A. In 1938 the Nazi’s annexed Austria which went against the treaty of Versailles and angered many nations
B. In the Munich Conference British and French diplomats chose appeasement and gave Hitler the Sudetland in exchange for Hitler saying that he no further plans of expansion
C. Winston Churchill once said “ they ahd to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor and they will have war”

4. The Plunge Toward War
A. The Soviet Pact was made between Hitler and Stalin saying they would not attack each other
B. The pact was not based on friendship rather a mutual need b between both of the leaders.
C. On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland thus starting World War II in which
there was no joy in the news the next day

5. Why War Came
A. The war came about as an effort to revise the 1919 peace settlement
B. Historians say that Hitler could have been stopped in 1939 but they didn’t want to risk war
C. The war ended up coming about anyways and the destruction was more than anyone could bear

6. The First Onslaught
A. Germany ended up capturing Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium with the help of Stalin
B. The Miracle of Dunkirk saved more than 300,000 allied troops from German harm.
C. Ion 1940 Hitler forced the French to sign the surrender documents in the same railroad car in which Germany had signed the armistice.

7. The Battle of Britain
A. The battle of Britain began on August 12, 1940 when the first wave of bombers appeared over England’s southern coast.
B. 15,000 people lost their lives in the London blitz over a 57 night period in which Germany bombers basically destroyed the city.
C. The British morale increased after the Battle of Britain instead of decreasing because they had survived the horrors of the Nazis

8. Charging Ahead
A. Mussolini sent General Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” to push British forces back in Northern Africa.
B. The British worried that he would seize the Suez Canal thus severing their lifeline to India.
C. Bulgaria and Hungary joined the Axis alliance and by 1941 the Axis powers or their allies controlled most of Western Europe

9. Operation Barbarossa
A. Operation Barbossa’s goal was to conquer the Soviet Union, Hitler wanted to gain living space for his people
B. The Russians lost about two and a half million men when Hitler caught him off guard the Nazis were now poised to take over Moscow and Leningrad
C. The Germans put up a siege at Leningrad and more than a million Leningraders died because of starvation.

10. Growing American Involvement
A. President Roosevelt found ways around the neutrality acts to provide aid including warships to Britain.
B. FDR convinced the congress to pass the lend-Lease Act which basically said they would aid any country in need of weapons
C. FDR and Churchill met secretly and made the Atlantic Charter

11. Japan Attacks
A. The United States banned the sale of anything to Japan such as war materials, iron, steel and oil this angered the Japanese
B. On December 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes damaged or destroyed 19 ships and killed more than 2,400 people when they attacked Pearl Harbor
C. In the beginning of 1942 the Japanese empire stretched from Southeast Asia to the Western Pacific.

12. Occupied Lands
A. The Nazis systematically stripped countries of works of art, factories and other resources
B. Hitler established death camps in Poland and in Germany at places like Auschwitz and Bergan Belsen to try to exterminate the European Jews
C. More than six millions European Jews died in what became known as the Holocaust and it wasn’t just Jews it was any other undesirable person that the Nazis felt like killing

13. The Allied War Effort
A. The big three were FDR, Churchill and Stalin and they met to agree to finish the war in Europe first before going to Asia but they all had bad things to say about each one.
B. The Allied Powers like the Axis powers were committed to total war, they directed economic resources into war effort, governments rationed consumer goods and many other things.
C. Millions of women replaced the men in essential jobs such as driving trucks, delivering airplanes and decoding messages

14. Turning Points
A. In 1942 Dwight Eisenhower combined forces with British commander Montgomery and ended up trapping Rommel’s army who surrendered in 1943
B. Victory in North Africa helped Allies leap across the Mediterranean into Italy
C. Allied forces pushed up north through Italy losing many men but making Hitler fight on another front which he wasn’t expecting which was key.

15. The red Army Resists
A. Hitler was determined to capture Stalin’s namesake city after being stalled outside of Moscow and Leningrad
B. The Russians encircled the Germans using machinery and the cold winter as their offense which led to the Germans surrendering.
C. Approximately 300,000 Germans were killed, wounded or captured which left Hitler with losses he could not replace and also the equipment he lost heart which led him to surrender.

16. Invasion of France
A. Dwight Eisenhower was made supreme Commander of the Allied forces he and other leaders faced the huge task of assembling all the soldiers and equipment
B. June 6, 1944”D-Day” was chosen for the invasion of France in which the Allies used land, water and air to attack the Germans
C. The Germans ended up retreating with forces coming form all sides, French was no longer under control of German rule and people were free.

17. War in the Pacific
A. The battles of Coral Sea and Midway greatly weakened Japanese naval power and stopped the Japanese advance
B. The United States then used the island hopping campaign where they countered many small islands leading up to Japan and building fortresses where they conquered
C. By 1944 ships were blockading Japan while American bombers were pounding Japanese cities and industries.

18. The Nazis Defeat
A. The Battle of the Bulge ended with the Germans driving the Allied forces back but being unable to break through, it was Hitler’s last success.
B. Allied raids on Dresden in February 1945 killed as many as 135,000 Germans
C. On May 7 Germany finally surrendered and a day later the war in Europe officially ended and was proclaimed V-E Day (Victory in Europe)

19. Defeat of Japan
A. Japanese fighters became kamikaze fighters which meant that they would commit suicide to kill allied forces through crashing their planes into a populous area
B. On August 6, 1945 an American plane dropped and atomic bomb on midsized city of Hiroshima killing 70,000 instantly and more died in later months form radiation
C. On August 9 the United States dropped a second atomic bomb this time on Nagasaki killing more than 40,000 Japanese people

20 Looking Ahead
A. Americans occupied the smoldering ruins of Japan after the surrender
B. Hitler’s occupation was split into four zones, French, British, American and Russian.
C. The Allied forces faced big decision on what to do in the two countries

21.  Aftermath of War
A. 75 million people worldwide died because of the war while in Europe 38 million died and the worst causalities for a country belonged to the Soviet Union with 22 million dead.
B. A handful of top Nazi officials received death sentences while others were imprisoned and similar war trials were held in Italy and Japan
C. By exposing the savagery of the Axis regimes they further discredited the Nazi, fascist, and militarist ideologies that had led to war

22. The United Nations
A. In 1919 the Allies set up the international organization to secure the peace
B. In April 1945 delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to draft a charter for the United Nations. It played a bigger role than the League of Nations and was more effective.
C. Each member nation had one vote in the General Assembly where members debated issues

23. The Crumbling Alliance
A. Conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust divided the former Alliance and soon led to conflict known as the Cold War
B. The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility among nations without armed conflict between the major rivals.
C.  At first the focus of the Cold War was Eastern Europe where Stalin and the western powers had very different goals

24. Containing Communism
A. Truman saw communism as an evil force creeping across Europe and threatening countries around the world including China.
B. The Truman Doctrine would guide the United States for decades to come and it made it clear that Americans would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or elsewhere in the world.
C. Germany became a divided nation, in west Germany the democratic nations let the people write a constitution and regain self government . In East Germany the Soviet Union installed a communist government tied to Moscow

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Mr. Haskels History