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1. Appeasement: Appeasement is giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep peace. Western Democracies used appeasement when it came to Germany and Hitler going against the treaty of Versailles

2. Blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg was Hitler’s lightning war, in which planes would bomb and shoot troops or civilians, followed closely by tanks and troop transports. Nazi forces used this tactic against Poland to overwhelm them.

3. Cold War: The Cold War was basically a fight between communism(Soviet Union)  and democracy (United States). The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan showed the US’ discontent with communism.

4. Collaborator: This person would help Nazi officials hunt down Jews. Because of collaborators more European Jews were killed in concentration camps.

5. Containment (policy): Containment limited the spread of communism to the areas already under Soviet control. The Truman Doctrine was based on the idea of containment.

6. Genocide: Genocide is the deliberate attempt to destroy and entire religious group or ethnic group. Hitler used mass genocide to kill off the European Jews of his time putting them in concentration camps to die.

7. Kamikaze: A pilot who undertook a suicide mission to help their country. They did this to save their homeland, as they would rather die than surrender.

8. Pacifism: Pacifism is the opposition to all war. Governments had to seek peace because of widespread pacifism.

9. Winston Churchill: British Prime Minister during World War II. He recognized the Nazi threat when no one else did and urged people to stop them before they regained their military strength and power.

10. Francisco Franco: Franco led the nationalists in the bloody Spanish civil war. In 1939 he succeeded in the overthrow, he created a fascist dictatorship like those of Hitler’s Germany and Mussolini’s Italy.

11. Dwight Eisenhower: He was an American general who took command of a joint Anglo American force in Morocco and Algeria. Advancing from the west he combined with British forces to trap Rommel’s (Desert fox)army.

12. Haile Selassie: Haile was the Ethiopian King at the time of Italy’s invasion. He appealed to the League of Nations for help, which voted sanctions against Italy for violating international law but the sanctions didn’t end up taking affect which helped Italy.

13. Harry Truman: Truman took office after FDR died unexpectedly on April 12. Truman knew the atomic bomb was a terrible new force for destruction, but after talking with his advisors he decided to use the new weapon on Japan after warning Japan to surrender.

14. Dunkirk: Dunkirk was a French coastal town in which the Allies were forced to retreat to due to the advancing Nazi forces. The British sent every available naval vessel, merchant ship, and every pleasure boat in a daring rescue dubbed the Miracle of Dunkirk.

15. El Alamein: British General Bernard Montgomery finally stopped Rommel’s advance through the desert and drove him back across Libya into Tunisia. Later Eisenhower took command of a join force along with the British trapped Rommel’s army which then surrendered and allowed allied forces to go across the Mediterranean.

16. Guernica: On an April morning in 1937 German bombers streaked over the squares of Guernica, this attack was said to be a dress rehearsal. They then machine gunned the remained of 16,000 people to death .

17. Hiroshima: On August 6, 1945 an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on the mid size town in Japan. The bomb completely flattened four square miles and instantly killed 70,000 people and more died of radiation in the coming years.

18. Nagasaki: On August 9, 1945 a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. It killed 40,000 people. The next day Hirohito and Japan surrendered.

19. Pearl Harbor:  As tension grew between America and Japan, General Tojo ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. On December 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes struck, destroying 19 ships, numerous planes, and killing 2,400 people.

20. Operation Barbarossa: In June of 1941 Hitler chose to go with Operation Barbarossa, which was the conquest of the Soviet Union. He intended to gain “living space” for Germans and to win control of regions rich in resources.

21. D-Day: The Allies chose June 6, 1944 as D-Day for the invasion of France. About 176,000 troops were ferried across the English Channel, breaking across the shore into Normandy and on to Paris. Other Allied forces moved from Italy to land in southern France.

22. Battle of Midway: Six months after Pearl Harbor, American warships and airplanes severely damaged Japanese fleets at the Battle of Midway Island. This was the first in a series of island hopping campaigns to get closer to Japan itself.

23. Holocaust: The Holocaust was the slaughter of Jews and other inferior races under Hitler’s Final Plan. 6 million Jews died at the hands of the Nazi’s in concentration camps in places such as Auschwitz and Bergen Belsen.

24. Cold War rivals (which nations): The two nations were the Soviet Union and the United States. It was a fight for control of Southeast Asian countries and the Slavic nations of Eastern Europe.

25. Francisco Franco: He led the nationalists in the Spanish civil war. When he succeeded in 1939 he created a fascist government just like Hitler and Mussolinis.

26. Benito Mussolini: He built Italy’s army into an army to a respected army by other countries, he was one of the first fascist government leaders. Hitler and Mussolini aided the nationalists in the Spanish civil war.

27. Adolph Hitler: Hitler was elected chancellor legally through a democratic voting process. He consistently went against he treaty of Versailles and was a very ambitious man. He had an extreme dislike for European Jews killing around 6 million during the Holocaust.

28. Tojo Hideki: General Tojo Hideki was an extreme militarist who was gaining much power in Japan. He did not want peace; instead he hoped to seize lands in Asia and the Pacific. General Tojo Hideki then ordered a surprise attack on the American fleets at Pearl Harbor which brought America into the war.

29. Neville Chamberlin: Neville Chamberlin was the British Prime Minister that that told cheering crowds that he had achieved “peace of our time.” after returning from Munich. He declared that the Munich Pact had “saved Czechoslovakia from destruction and Europe from Armageddon.”

30. Franklin Roosevelt: FDR was part of the Big Three that hoped to crush Germany and Japan. FDR had tried to keep the US neutral in the war but the attack on Pearl Harbor finally gave him extreme likeness of declaring war but he didn’t have to decide to declare because Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.

31. Stalingrad: The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the costliest of the war. Hitler wanted to capture Stalin’s namesake city, and Stalin wanted to defend it. The Germans surrounded the city, and were then surrounded by Soviet forces. The Germans had no supplies and the commander was forced to surrender in 1943 after 300,000 of his men were killed, wounded, or captured.

32. Explain 2 reasons why the US used the atomic bomb against Japan: One reason was because Japan seemed like they would never surrender if the fighting stayed in the air and on ground. They would fight to the death. They refused to surrender. Second the atomic bomb although at the present time killed many Japanese people saved lives in the long run because the war would have probably gone 2 to 3 years more if the bomb had not been dropped.
 

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