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ch 32-33 outline
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Chapter 32 and 33 Outline

1. The Great Liberation
A. The resistance to colonial rule was a success the resistance won freedom for one reason that the war had exhausted colonial powers’ military and financial resources
B. Nearly 100 new countries emerged during the great liberation such as India, Nigeria, Kuwait and Lesotho
C. The developing world included nations such as Africa and Asia and their goals were to pursue modernization, which meant to build a stable governments and developing their countries developing
2. The Cold War Goes Global
A. Each superpower wanted new countries to adopt its ideology which was capitalism or socialism in which many favored socialism.
B. The goal of nonaligned movement was to reduce world tensions and promote economic policies that would benefit nations.
C. The Cold war ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed and even though the war was over troubling local, regional, and global problems remained.
3. New nations Seek Stability
A. Many new nations were shaken by revolution or civil war, often times western educated people were the wealthiest while the great majority were poor
B. the military or authoritarian leaders often took over in which many of them were the same people who had led the fight for liberation
C. Democracy did make some progress in the late 1980s and early 1990s when Africa, Asia and Latin America held multiparty elections
4. The Shrinking Globe
A. Interdependence means to be dependent on other countries for goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world
B. Some UN interventions have been successful while others have failed usually because of an inability of members to agree on goals and methods
C. A series of international agreements known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established fair trade for all nations.
5. Enduring Issues
A. In 1968 a number of nations signed the Nuclear Non- Proliferation treaty (NPT) agreeing to halt the spread of nuclear weapons
B. Terrorism is the deliberate use of random violence especially against civilians to exact revenge or achieves political goals.
C. In 1972 a radical group killed Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games to push its demands for a Palestinian state while in the 1990s separate terrorist groups killed India’s leader Rajiv Gandhi and bombed New York’s World Trade Center.
6. The Global North and South: Two Worlds of Development
A. The global north includes nations of Western Europe and North America as well as Japan and Australia. Most people of the north are literate, earn adequate wages, and have basic health services.
B. The global south refers to the developing world in which most of these nations lie in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The South has three quarters of the World’s population and much of its resources.
C. The imbalance of rich and poor has created resentment and led to the migration of people from poor regions to wealthier countries.
7. Economic Interdependence
A. Multinational Corporations are enterprises with branches in many countries that have invested in the developing world. They bring new technology to mining, agriculture, transportation, and other industries.
B. In 1973 a political crisis in the Middle East led the OPEC to halt oil exports and then raise oil prices. The high process set off shock wave sin industrialized nations.
C. In the 1980s bank interests rose while the world economy slowed down and as the demand of for many of their goods fell, poor nations were unable to repay their debts or even the interest of their loans.
8. Obstacles to Development
A. Many developing countries share the same five problems on why they couldn’t modernize they are geography, population and poverty, economic dependence, economic policies and political instability.
B. An estimated 35 million people die each year from illness related to hunger and an estimated 35,000 children die each day from malnutrition, disease, and other effects of poverty
C.  War created millions of refugees living in camps both inside and outside their home countries and the loss of their labor has further hurt war- torn countries.
9. Economic Development and the Environment
A. Gases from power plants and factories produced acid rain which is a form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the Earth as rain, snow or hail
B. In response to disasters of industrials accidents technicians have developed measures to increase safety but such measures do not always succeed and companies often resist the expense.
C. Agreeing on solutions for the deteriorating earth is still a challenge for the present and future generations and it needs to be solved before the Earth ends too soon.
10. The Village: Continuity and Change
A. Village people form the largest part of the world’s population, about 3.3 billion people of the population of the 5.7 billion people on earth are village people.
B. The village peoples’ days are long with much hard work, and may start before dawn and end after dusk to make ends meat.
C. Village ways have lasted very long but decades of urbanization, westernization, and new technology have taken a toll on the village way of life
11. Old Ways and New
A. In the west, industrialization and urbanization began more than 200 years ago during the Industrial Revolution the same can’t be said for the lesser nations
B. People in developing nations have immigrated to rural cities for better jobs and a better way of life even though they will have to work very hard but the working conditions are better
C. In the cities people adopted western fashions and ideas but things such as religious traditions have stayed the same throughout time
12. New Rights and Roles for Women
A. After 1945 women’s movements have brought change to both the western and developing nations way of life.
B. In the industrialized world women worked outside the home and gradually won equal access to many rights then only men could previously hold.
C. In developing nations women worked actively in the nationalist struggles and because of their hard work they were rewarded with rights
13. Science and Technology
A. The computer is among the most radical ideas of the last 50 years, it has evolved immensely starting with big huge slow computers and evolving to tiny laptops.
B. The space race began in 1957 when the USSR launched the tiny satellite Sputnik into orbit. In 1969 the US landed men on the moon. Later the US and Soviet Union launched joint missions.
C. Medical breakthroughs have saved numerous lives but new viruses such as Ebola and AIDS still kill millions and a vaccine has not been found.
14. A New International Culture
A. New technology such as the radio, TV, satellites, fax machines, and computer networks have put people everywhere in touch and helped create a global culture
B. The driving force behind global culture has been the US. The US has had fads, fashions, music etc that have captured the world imagination
C. Arts dramatically changed with industry. Western powers preserve and appreciate ancient art of other nations, as well as attempt to protect the value of ancient cultural treasures
15. Looking Ahead
A. Many current trends and issues emerged long before 1945 and will continue into the new millennium.
B. Global interdependence is fact that can’t be avoided even though nationalism is on the rise
C. In nations people have to adjust to the interests of themselves so that they do not get out of control with their interests
Chapter 33
16. The Cold War in Europe
A. The Berlin Wall remained a focus of Cold War tensions because the city was divided between democratic West Berlin and communist East Berlin.
B. For over 40 years the war would go up and down as far as fighting but tensions remained as each crisis triggered another arms race
C. Disarmament and détente worked for some years until the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and caused a severe setback. By the 90’s the war was over when the Soviet Union fell.
17. Recovery and Growth in Western Europe
A. The Marshall Plan  helped western European nation’s recover form World War II with aids that were included in the plan
B. The oil demand made the West suffer an economically as a result of OPEC prices and production.
C. What made it worse was at the same time the West faced growing competition from other parts of the world from places such as industrial Japan, China, and India.
18. Toward European Unity
A. In 1957 the Common Market was signed to expand free trade it was signed by France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
B. In 1973 Britain, Denmark and Ireland joined the Market and took the name European Union (EU).
C. By the late 90s the EU was pushing for complete economy unity, a single currency, and greater political unity in which some were not met.
19. Social Trends
A. Since the 50s many immigrants from former colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean settled in Europe.
B. Since 1949 women in Europe and North America have made progress toward legal and economic equality.
C. The family life changed it became fewer kids and longer education for the well being of the person in the industrialized world.
20. Britain: Government and the Economy
A. By 1979 Britain was under economic hard times but they weren’t the only ones a lot of other nations in the world were experiencing economic hard times
B. After WWII, the British Empire shrank as their colonies won independence. Britain ceded its throne of global leadership to the US.
C. Through all events going on in the world Northern Ireland remained a source for religious conflict that still goes on today.
21. France: Revival and Prosperity
A. De Gaulle set up the Fifth Republic in 1958 this event gave him much of the power and immediately he knew that France must give up Algeria.
B. De Gaulle didn’t like the US stand in the Cold War, and opened talks with communism nations such as Cuba and the Soviet Union.
C. France experienced new prosperity in the 1970s because of industrialization and expanded social welfares
22. Germany: Reunited at Last
A. With the United States aiding them Germany rebuilt to a force that could defend it self and give a good life to its people
B. Willy Brandt’s policy Ostopolik was sort of successful, but the goal of reunification was impossible to pull off in the Cold War world.
C. By 1989 the Soviet influence was failing and the Berlin Wall fell when East German rulers were overthrown because of this economic problems arose
23. Other Democratic Nations of the West
A. Italy was divided between the urban and industrial North, while the South was rural and peasant filled
B. Italy’s multiparty system created instability as one coalition succeeded another but it never did make progress.
C. Spain, Portugal and Greece all had dictatorships that lasted into the 70’s but when the dictators died new governments were set up which helped for rapid expansion.
24. The United States and the Cold War
A. The United States had military bases all over the world as well as fleets in all oceans and planes that made a nuclear umbrella.
B. Troops fought ideological wars in Korea and Vietnam to stop Soviet expansion, and thus communist expansion.
C. The end of the war did not bring world peace; instead conflicts erupted in such places as Kuwait and Iraq, Haiti, and Bosnia.
25. Economy and the Role of Government
A. In the US, the government’s role in the economy reached a level it had never been at before, just as in Western Europe.
B. The Great Society focused on the good and improvement of people’s lives, things such as Medicare for the elderly and job training for the poor were provided.
C. Government spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national debt; debate continued to rage as the debt grew larger.
26. The Civil Rights Movement
A. Although African Americans had won freedom a century earlier, many states, especially in the South, denied granting them equality this was known as apartheid
B. By 1956 Martin Luther King Jr. emerged as the leader of the civil rights movement with his nonviolent protests like that of Gandhi in India.
C. Equality for the blacks was won, but racial prejudice still survived the result of the movement was that it urged other groups to campaign for equality.
27. The United States and the Global Economy
A. As the United States’ economy grew with the growing global economy, problems arose such as oil, inflation, and Third World debt based in American banks.
B. American industries still faced competition from cheaper Asian market; it lost jobs to the developing world in Mexico as well.
C. Still the US remained a rich nation and thus a magnet for poor immigrants for whom the US said immigration laws should be tougher and benefits reduced.
28. Postwar Canada
A. Immigration new target was the industrialized nation of Canada after the war had occurred.
B. Canada enjoyed a postwar economic boom due to rich oil and gas deposits found in its western provinces.
C. The trouble in Quebec as well as issues with America was resolved with NAFTA and working together for a common solution.
29. Stalin’s Successors
A. After World War II the Soviet Union emerged as a superpower with a sphere of influence from the Baltic to the Balkans.
B. Khrushchev shocked communists by denouncing Stalin’s power abuse Brezhnev hated people who spoke against the government.
C. Both leaders struggled to hold the empire together overall not being good leaders but it was tough holding the power over so much land and people
30. The Soviet Economy
A. After the war Stalin rebuilt shattered Soviet industries using factories and equipment shipped form Germany.
B. In 1957 the Soviet’s launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth which scared the Americans to death of the idea of a satellite
C. Neither of Stalin’s successors were able to solve basic economic problems, the state run economy poured resources into major projects, but never the people.
31. Foreign Policy Issues
A. Stalin and his successors forcefully asserted Soviet control over Eastern Europe with things such as the Warsaw Pact.
B. As nations emerged from colonial rule the Soviet Union supplied them with military and economic aid, thus spreading communism.
C. The United States and Soviet stand off made the Soviet economy suffer in things like the Cuban missile crisis and the Afghan War.
32. Collapse of the Soviet Empire
A. Gorbachev’s revolutionary new ideas included ending censorship, peace with the US, and withdrawing from Afghanistan.
B. Such rapid change brought economic turmoil, old regime communism’s called for the old order but others wanted more radical changes.
C. Those of the old order tried to overthrow him, but failed, yet it weakened him. Other states declared independence and Gorbachev resigned as president. After 74 years the Soviet Union ceased to be.
33. The Russian Republic
A. Russians approved a new constitution, but they had no democratic traditions to build a base upon which made it hard to build any democratic lifestyle.
B. To solve the economic crisis, Yeltsin privatized more state run industries and farms, but the changeover to a market economy was painful.
C. Russia reduced its nuclear stockpile after the Soviet Union fell, but still had a large military and nuclear weapons and still poise a threat to all the nations.
34. The Other Republics
A. All of the former Soviet satellites faced the same problems as the Russian republic.
B. Some of the new nations disputed over borders, such as Armenia attempting to seize Azerbaijan.
C. Some nations traded old nuclear stockpiles left on their soil in return for trading privileges with the West.
35. In the Soviet Orbit
A. Supporting communist groups dominated the laws, but each country kept its own culture and identity.
B. As the Cold War deepened the Soviet Union tightened its grips on the satellite nations by sending more than 30 divisions of troops to them.
C. Soviet power did not extend to Yugoslavia but Tito set up a communist government but refused the path that Moscow had taken.
36. Poland’s Struggle Toward Democracy
A. Poland was the Soviets most troubled satellite; Poles wanted greater freedom from the Soviet bloc.
B. In the late 1980’s Gorbachev declared he would not interfere in Eastern Europe, and by then Poland was going through similar radical changes on its way to change.
C. In 1980 economic hardships ignited strikes of shipyard workers in the port of Gdansk, pressure from this group and the world strained the communist government.
37. Revolution and Freedom
A. In the 90’s Eastern European nations looked to the West for aid and to join the EU and NATO, Russia didn’t agree but the West wanted to protect Eastern Europe.
B. Because of centuries of migration and conquest left most of the Eastern European nations with diverse populations, they became a dividing force in places like Czechoslovakia, becoming the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Yugoslavia.
C. Like Russia and the other satellite nations, Eastern Europe planned to build stable governments with free market economies.
38. War Comes to Sarajevo
A. Sarajevo became the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina while Serbia and Montenegro kept the name Yugoslavia.
B. Sarajevo was part of Yugoslavia, and after Tito’s death the communist regime fell and tore Yugoslavia apart.
C. The struggle in Bosnia left many refugees who were aided by the UN and charities.
39. Looking Ahead
A. As Serb forces advanced the US and allies couldn’t decide to intervene, but finally did to impose a temporary peace.
B. An international court at The Hague was set up for trails of those accused of war crimes in Bosnia.
C. In 1995 the US brought the feuding sides to Dayton, Ohio where they hammered out a series of agreements called the Dayton Accords.
 

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