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31 May 2005
Cold War Study Guide Chapter 32-33

Chapter 32

1. Terrorism: Terrorism is the deliberate use of random violence against civilians to exact revenge or achieves political goals. Since the 1960’s the word has seen a rise in terrorist activity.

2. Privatization: Privatization is the selling off of state owned industries to private investors. Nations hoped that more efficient private organizations would produce higher quality goods in the long run.

3. Nonaligned: To be nonaligned means to be not allied to either side in the Cold War. Nations did this so that they would avoid super power rivalry.

4. Multinational Corporation: A multinational corporation is an enterprise with branches in many different countries. These corporations have invested in the developing world to help with their development and provide aid, technical advisers, and loans.

5. Liberation Theology: Liberation theology is a movement that urged the church to become more active in opposing poverty. In Latin America, some Roman Catholic clergy adopted this theology.

6. Interdependence: Interdependence is the dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world. Since 1945 the shrinking globe has made the world ever more interdependent.

7. Culture Shock: Culture shock refers to when people who move from the villages to cities suffer a sense stress and isolation. Older beliefs and values are undermined by urban places and are mostly concerned about material wealth, education, and job status.

8. Acid Rain: Gases from power plants and factories produced acid rain, a form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the Earth as rain, snow, or hail.  Acid rain damaged forests, lakes, and farmland, especially in industrial Europe and North America.

9. Effects of Cold War: The Cold War started when the Soviet Union and the US competed for influence in developing nations by offering economic and military aid.  Each superpower wanted new countries to adopt its ideology; capitalism or socialism.

10. Why did democracy fail in many new nations?: Democracy fell in new nations because they did not have the capital to make it work properly. The new nations had little funding, so some starved while others dined and thus you had revolts etc.

11. Majority of world's wealth controlled by?: The majority of the world’s wealth is controlled by the Global North. The Global North is developed in industry and many other important areas while the south has not developed in the areas which creates an economic gap between the two.

12. Effect of urbanization in developing nations: Urbanization in developing nations could not be properly supported. The result of the urbanization was that cities became crowded and finding a job became very difficult in the these nations that were still in the developing stage.

13. Factories effect on environmental damage: Due to the expansion of factories, many parts of the environment were damaged.  For instance, air and water pollution, deforestation, desertification, endangered plants and animals, and waste disposal were all affected by the large development of factories.

14. Factors contributing to political instability in African nations: In Africa, civil wars and other struggles prevented economic development.  Military dictators or other authoritarian leaders spent huge sums on weapons and warfare instead of on education, housing, or health care.

15. Primary cause of global interdependence: As nations became super industrial, they needed more resources. Often times goods, knowledge, technology etc were needed from other nations and thus one became dependent on the other.

16. Global South: The Global South refers the undeveloped nations south of the Equator that are economically poor compared to the North. The South is striving to become industrial and get above the poverty line with aid from nations in the North.

Chapter 33

17. Modern technology: Technology rapidly advanced after World War II. New innovations included the modern radio, television, updated phone, fax and perhaps the most revolutionary, the computer.

18. Welfare State: A major goal of leftist parties was to extend the welfare state.  Under this system, a government keeps most features of a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.

19. Glasnost: Glasnost refers to a state of openness to another nation etc. In the Soviet Union Gorbachev launched a revolutionary two-pronged effort at reform, calling for glasnost to the West to end Cold War tensions.

20. Dissident: A dissident is someone who speaks out against the government. Brezhnev rigorously suppressed dissidents, who faced being arrested and imprisoned.

21. Deficit: The national deficit is the gap between what a government spends and what it takes in through taxes and other sources. Debates in the 1990’s raged about how far to cut spending so the deficit would shorten.

22. Détente: Détente refers to a relaxation of tensions. By the 1970’s American and Soviet leaders promoted an era of détente until the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979.

23. Leonid: In 1964, economic and foreign policy setbacks resulted in Khrushchev’s removal from office.  Leonid Brezhnev took over the Soviet Union and rigorously suppressed dissidents.

24. Brezhnev: In 1964, economic and foreign policy setbacks resulted in Khrushchev’s removal from office.  Leonid Brezhnev took over the Soviet Union and rigorously suppressed dissidents.

25. Charles de Gaulle: de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He later became the first president of the Fifth Republic.

26. Martin Luther King Jr: Martin Luther King Jr. was a gifted preacher who, in 1956, emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement.  Inspired by Gandhi’s campaign of civil disobedience in India, King organized boycotts and led peaceful marches throughout the 1960s to end segregation in the United States.

27. Joseph McCarthy: Between 1950 and 1954, Senator Joseph McCarthy charged many Americans with harboring communist sympathies.  Government probes, however, produced little evidence of subversion and eventually, the Senate condemned McCarthy’s reckless behavior, but not before his unjust charges had ruined the careers of thousands of Americans.

28. Margaret Thatcher: Margaret Thatcher was the British prime minister who denounced the welfare state as costly and inefficient. Thatcher also worked to replace government social and economic programs that promoted individual initiative.

29. Perestroika: Perestroika refers to the rebuilding of the government and the economy. Gorbachev pushed this theory, streamlining government and reducing the size of the bureaucracy.

30. Service industry: A service industry refers to a service rather than a product that the government provides. Service industries include health care, finance, sales, education, and recreation.

31. Mikhail Gorbachev: Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was a key player in the shape of today’s world.  His reforms led to discontent and eventually the independence of Eastern Europe, the breakup of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Cold War.

32. Helmut Kohl: West German chancellor Helmut Kohl was the architect of unity.  He assured both the Soviet Union and the West that a united Germany would pose no threat to peace.

33. Nikita Khrushchev: Khrushchev emerged as the new Soviet leader after Stalin.  In 1956, he shocked top Communist party members when he publicly denounced Stalin’s abuse of power.  He didn’t change many of the goals, but he did free many political prisoners and eased censorship.

34. Josip Tito: During World War II, a fierce guerrilla leader named Josip Tito had battled German occupying forces.  Later, Tito set up a communist government in Yugoslavia, but he pursued a path independent of Moscow.  He refused to join the Warsaw Past and claimed to be neutral in the Cold War.

35. Lech Walesa: In 1980, economic hardships ignited strikes of shipyard workers which were led by Lech Walesa.  They organized an independent trade union called Solidarity.  It soon claimed 10 million members who pressed for political change.

36. Reunification of Germany: With the fall of the Soviet Union, Germany was reunited. A main symbol of the reunification is the Berlin Wall, which was partially destroyed upon news of reunification.

37. Goal of Separatism in Quebec: Quebec’s French speaking population saw themselves as a distinct society. To protect their culture Quebec demanded more autonomy within Canada.

38. Result of central economic planning in the Soviet Union: In the Soviet Union Stalin and his successors focused on industries such as steel, coal, and heavy industry as well as science and technology. The funds going to the people were lacking, in the late 1980s the economy faced a major obstacle with military costs skyrocketing.

39. Civil war in Yugoslavia: Civil War broke out in Yugoslavia because a wave of nationalism came over the country once Josip Tito and his communist nation died.  The three main ethnic groups eventually separated and formed their own countries and capitals.
 

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