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Dan Kelchner



Octorber 10 2005

                                                STUDY GUIDE Chp 8-9

*peasant- Most peasants were serfs who were bound to the lands. The lowest of the fuadal system were peasants


*usury- Is lending mondey at interest, the clergy thought that making money from interest was immoral.


*capital-Money fro investment, Because the need for capital after a while banking houses were made.


*tithe- Payment to a church that is 10% of the persons income.  Christains were required to pay a thithe to keep the church going.


*fief- In the middle ages an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.


*chivalry-Code of conduct for knights during the middle ages.


*charter- In the middle ages a written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town.


*troubadour- wandering poet in Europe in the middle ages.


*manor economy- during the middle ages in Europe a lords estate which included on or more villages and the surrounding lands.


*how monks and nuns lived-  They devoted their lives to spiritual goals. Under Benedictine monks and nuns took an oath of poverty. They risked their lives to spread Christianity across Europe.


*Why was church reform desired? It was desired because the church had become weak. As its wealth and power grew discipline weakend. The clergy tended to be worldly and many lived in luxury. Monks and nun ignored their vows. Married priest devoted more time to their familys.


*new agricultural technologie?- new technologies like iron plow instead of a wooden on, new harnesses made it so peasants could use horses instead of oxen which were faster and also the windmill which did not need running water.


*defense of castles (moats, etc)- castles had keep ringed by a fence, moats surrounded the castle also had drawbridges.


*Battle of Tours


*vassals—in medieval Europe a lord who was granted land in exchange for services and loyalty to a greater lord.


*knights- noble in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the middle ages.


*lords-a noble in medieval Europe.


*why did the church have great power over the people?- they had great power because the church told the people how they had to live.


*Cluniac reforms- the set out to end abuses. First he revived the Benedictine rule. He filled the monastery with men who were devoted soley to religious pursuits.


*three field system- one field was used to grow wheat the second was for beans and the third was unplanted to keep it firtle.


*merchant guilds- an association of merchants that cooperated to protect their economic interists.




*nobles- anyone in the upper class in medieval Europe.


*Charlemagne- a great emperor who cared about his people. He didn’t care what ethnisity you were but he was just really sweet.


*Leif Erikson- set up a Viking colony in about the year 1000.


*serf-a pesant that’s bound to the land.


*excommunication- exclusion from the roman catholic church for refuseing to obey laws of their own nation.


*steel plow- a plow that insead of being wooden was made of steel. Works a lot better.


*feudal system- loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military sevices and other support to a greater lord.


*Black Death- which regions most devastated?% population  died? result?- the rigions most devastated were the Europeans. One out of every three people died in Europe. 7000 people a day in cairo and 35 million in china it resulted in hirhger prices and different groups blaming other people.


*Magna Carta- protected the rights of barons, and the rights of the church and towns people. It had 2 basic ideas that would shape government first it said that nobels had certain rights and when was extended to all citizens, and it said that the  monarch had to obey the law, was signed by Jon-henry’s son.



*Concordat of Worms- In 1122 henry and Gregory signed it and it stated that the church had sole power to elext and invest bishops and the empire had the rights to invest them with fiefs.


*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades- the goal was the conquest of the holy land and the result of them were increased. The result of the crusades was to stop muslims from converting chrstians to islam.


*Reconquista- the conquest of the ibierian peninsula by the Spanish.


*early jury system- the early jury system was meant to give people a fair trial.


*conflict between emperors and popes-  emperors thought that they should be able to run their country the way they wanted to. And popes were the head of the church and thought everyone should do what the church did.


Short Answer

A.    5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline.

Bad leadership

Selfish monarchs


Church tried to rule everything

No philosophers

B. 3 long term effects of the crusades

 Three long term effects were bad blood between Christians and Muslims. Wasted time fighting eachother and people dieing for nothing. 

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Mr. Haskels History