Octorber 10 2005
GUIDE Chp 8-9
*peasant- Most peasants were serfs who were bound to
the lands. The lowest of the fuadal system were peasants
*usury- Is lending mondey at interest, the clergy
thought that making money from interest was immoral.
*capital-Money fro investment, Because the need for
capital after a while banking houses were made.
*tithe- Payment to a church that is 10% of the persons
income. Christains were required
to pay a thithe to keep the church going.
*fief- In the middle ages an estate granted by a lord
to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.
*chivalry-Code of conduct for knights during the
*charter- In the middle ages a written document that
set out the rights and privileges of a town.
*troubadour- wandering poet in Europe in the middle
*manor economy- during the middle ages in Europe a
lords estate which included on or more villages and the surrounding lands.
*how monks and nuns lived-
They devoted their
lives to spiritual goals. Under
Benedictine monks and nuns took an oath of poverty. They risked their lives to
spread Christianity across Europe.
*Why was church reform desired? It was desired because
the church had become weak. As its wealth and power grew discipline weakend.
The clergy tended to be worldly and many lived in luxury. Monks and nun ignored
their vows. Married priest devoted more time to their familys.
*new agricultural technologie?- new technologies like
iron plow instead of a wooden on, new harnesses made it so peasants could use
horses instead of oxen which were faster and also the windmill which did not
need running water.
*defense of castles (moats, etc)- castles had keep
ringed by a fence, moats surrounded the castle also had drawbridges.
*Battle of Tours
*vassals—in medieval Europe a lord who was granted
land in exchange for services and loyalty to a greater lord.
*knights- noble in Europe who served as a mounted
warrior for a lord in the middle ages.
*lords-a noble in medieval Europe.
*why did the church have great power over the people?-
they had great power because the church told the people how they had to live.
*Cluniac reforms- the set out to end abuses. First he
revived the Benedictine rule. He filled the monastery with men who were devoted
soley to religious pursuits.
*three field system- one field was used to grow wheat
the second was for beans and the third was unplanted to keep it firtle.
*merchant guilds- an association of merchants that
cooperated to protect their economic interists.
*nobles- anyone in the upper class in medieval Europe.
*Charlemagne- a great emperor who cared about his
people. He didn’t care what ethnisity you were but he was just really sweet.
*Leif Erikson- set up a Viking colony in about the
*serf-a pesant that’s bound to the land.
*excommunication- exclusion from the roman catholic
church for refuseing to obey laws of their own nation.
*steel plow- a plow that insead of being wooden was
made of steel. Works a lot better.
*feudal system- loosely organized system of government
in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military sevices and
other support to a greater lord.
*Black Death- which regions most devastated?%
population died? result?- the
rigions most devastated were the Europeans. One out of every three people died
in Europe. 7000 people a day in cairo and 35 million in china it resulted in
hirhger prices and different groups blaming other people.
*Magna Carta- protected the rights of barons, and the
rights of the church and towns people. It had 2 basic ideas that would shape
government first it said that nobels had certain rights and when was extended
to all citizens, and it said that the
monarch had to
obey the law, was signed by Jon-henry’s son.
*Concordat of Worms- In 1122 henry and Gregory signed
it and it stated that the church had sole power to elext and invest bishops and
the empire had the rights to invest them with fiefs.
*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades- the goal
was the conquest of the holy land and the result of them were increased. The
result of the crusades was to stop muslims from converting chrstians to islam.
*Reconquista- the conquest of the ibierian peninsula
by the Spanish.
*early jury system- the early jury system was meant to
give people a fair trial.
*conflict between emperors and popes- emperors thought that they should be
able to run their country the way they wanted to. And popes were the head of
the church and thought everyone should do what the church did.
reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline.
Church tried to rule everything
B. 3 long term effects of the crusades
long term effects were bad blood between Christians and Muslims. Wasted time
fighting eachother and people dieing for nothing.